Biographical Etymology of Marine Organism Names. C

Lacking information about the eponym in the gastropod name Epitonium caamanoi Dall & Bartsch, 1910. Possibly the Spanish explorer Jacinto Caamaño Moreleja, (8 Sep. - Madrid) 1759-1825?, who in 1792 mapped the southern part of the Alaskan Prince of Wales Archipelago may be the honoured person? The year of his death is unknown, but he still lived in Guayaquil in 1820 (& in 1821) and one of his grandsons José Plácido Caamaño, 1838-1901, later became president of the Republic of Ecuador.

The Mexican helminthologist Dr. Eduardo Caballero y Caballero, (26 Oct. - San Juan Bautista) 1904-1974 (30 Dec.), is honoured in the digenean names Caballeroiella Lamothe-Argumedo, 1977, Caballerotrematoides Madhavi, 1977, Metadena caballeroi Nahhas & Krupin, 1977 and Neolepocreadium caballeroi Thomas, 1960, in the monogenean names Caballerocotyla Price, 1960, Caballeria Bychowsky & Nagibina,1972, Caballeraxine Lebedev, 1972, in the nematode names Caballeronema Margolis, 1977 and Caballeroides Chaturvedi & Khera, 1977 and in the acanthocephalan name Caballerorhynchus Salgado-Maldonado, 1977. He has often coauthored works with his Mexican colleague Dr. Margarita Bravo Hollis, (10 June - Mexico City) 1911- (evidently still living - but retired - during 2005), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, now retired (& both of them are honoured in the monogenean name Parancylodiscoides caballerobravorum Cezar, Luque & Amato, 1999). She is honoured in the monogenean genus names Bravohollisia Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1972 and Bravocotyle Lamothe-Argumedo, 1968 and in the trematode name Bravotrema Groschaft, 1972 and has several fresh water monogeneans, nematodes and other creatures named for her and also Neotetraonchus bravohollisae Paperna, 1977 & Ametrodaptes bravoae Ahmad, 1985. She is sister of Dr. h.c. Helia Bravo Hollis, (30 Sep.) 1901-2001 (26 Sep.), Mexican well-known cactus specialist (with several cacti taxon names honouring her). They were daughters of a Mexican revolutionary who was killed in 1913 and an English mother. (André Trombeta, Brazil, kindly provided some of this information).

Lacking information about Cabioch in the crinoid name Conocrinus cabioshi Roux, 1976 and in the polychaete name Laubieriopsis cabiochi (Amoureux, 1982). Possibly the coral reef researcher Dr. Guy Cabioch, 19??-, at l'Observatoire Océanologique de Villefranche-sur-Mer (later the research center at New Caledonia) or Prof. Louis Cabioch, 19??-, Curator at the Roscoff Laboratory [Fuscapex cabiochi Bouchet & Warén, 1986], who in 1968 published on the benthos of the English Channel, directed some Celtic Sea cruises with R/V Thalassa and in 1992 was coeditor of a publication on fluxes and processes in the same area?

The nematode name Vasorhabdochona cablei Martin & Zam, 1967, and the trematode names Botulus cablei Stunkard, 1965 & Neopechona cablei Stunkard, 1980 is honouring Prof. Dr. Raymond Millard Cable, 1909-1995 (26 Feb.), spending far more than the last half of his scientific career at Dep. of Biological Sciences, Purdue Univ,, Lafayette, Indiana, where he became Prof. Emer. in 1975. He had first studied at Berea College, Kentucky, graduating there in 1929, then under Stunkard (q.v.) at New York Univ., achieving his PhD in 1933, then again Berea until 1935, when he started his career at Purdue, becoming full Professor in 1947 and developing into a specialist on cercariae. A memorial paper by Robin Overstreet about him is found in J. Parasitol., 1997, 83 (3): 337-343. (Prof. Albina Gaevskaja, Sevastopol, kindly provided this information and also sending a pdf of the memorial paper).

Ercolania lozanoi Ortea, 1981 was named for the late Spanish ichthyologist Dr. Fernando Lozano Cabo, (25 May - Melilla) 1916-1980 (7 Jan.), in recognition of his life spent to studying the sea.

The Leptostracan name Nebaliella caboti Clark, 1932 was originally described from Cabot Strait, north of Cape Breton Island, Canada, in turn named for the Italian explorer John Cabot. 1450-1499, alias Giovanni Caboto, who had moved with his family from his birth place Genoa to Venice in 1461, from where he made sea trips, e.g. to the easterm Mediterranean shores and Mecca, but later moved to England and took residence in Bristol in 1480? (where he lived at least in 1495 and had spent several years in the fishing industry in order to be able to purchase an own ship), where he was authorized by Henry VII to voyage on search for new land and made possibly such trips in 1494 (May 2 to August, landing somewhere in Canada with the ship Matthew in June 24), 1497 (is said to have mapped between Maine and Florida) and 1498-99 towards west (because independently of Cristobal Colon, he thoght that he could reach Japan and China that way) and is thought to have reached southern Labrador, Newfoundland and Cape Breton Island, but his exact whereabouts have been lost in history, even if he and his crew may have been killed off Venezuela by the Spanish conquistador Alonso de Hojeda during the last trip, because the crew and the ship were never seen again and the fight, wheater the continent was named after Amerigo Vespucci or the wealthy Bristol merchant Richard Ameryk / Amerike, (Weston under Penyard) ca 1445-1502, who likely fiinanced the Cabot expeditions and likely had earned money already during the 1480s from cod catched by Bristol fishing ships along the Newfoundland coast, is going on. (His name is from Welsh ap Meuric or ap Meuirig, meaning son of Meurig).

The gastropod name Turbonilla cabrilloi Bartsch, 1917 is likely named for an old explorer. Fifty years after Columbus landed in the New World, soldier-navigator-explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo led the first European expedition to the shores of what is now the state of California. The voyage, which ended with Cabrillo's death, marked the beginning of recorded history in the Western United States. Little is known about Cabrillo's early years. Even his nationality is uncertain; most biographies describe him as Portuguese, but in his exhaustive 1986 biography Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, historian Harry Kelsey writes that Cabrillo appears to have been born in Spain, "probably in Seville, but perhaps in Cuellar." His date of birth and parentage are also unknown, but events in Cabrillo's life lead Kelsey to believe he was born of poor parents "around 1498 or 1500," and then worked for his keep in the home of a prominent Seville merchant. The final mystery about Cabrillo is his place of burial. He died on January 3, 1543 off the coast of southern California, but his burial site is unknown; Santa Catalina Island, San Miguel Island and Santa Rosa Island have all been suggested. Cabrillo departed from Navidad (now called Acapulco) on June 27, 1542, and sailed north to Baja California. He went further along the coast, and discovered and named San Diego Bay and Santa Barbara. Although he reached Russian River, he missed Monterey Bay and San Francisco Bay (future discoverers would miss the Golden Gate as well, it was first found on the Portolá expedition of 1769, which followed the coastline by land). (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly provided all this information).

Lacking information about Cabrit in the gastropod names Murex cabritii Bernardi, 1859, Harpa cabriti Fischer, 1860 and Conus cabritii Bernardi, 1858, but a French collector named so existed and this Mr. Cabrit, 1???-18??, of Bordeaux (a subscriber to the Journal de Conchyliologie), is honoured at least in Bernardi's name. His collection was according to Crosse 1879 acquired by the French collector Daniel Guestier, 1820-1900. He may possibly - but perhaps not very likely because of his young age - be identical to Jean-Alfred Cabrit, 1841-1907 (14 Apr. - Bourg), painter, art and science lover from this city. (according to kind information from Dr. Eugene V. Coan, California).

Mr. Charles Cachia, 1945-, well-known malacologist living in Malta [Pseudographis cachiai Mifsu,1998].

Prof. Dr. Jean Cachon, 1922-1989, Protistologist at Laboratoire de Protistologie Marine, Villefranche-sur-Mer, who often published on Actinopoda together with his wife Dr. Monique Cachon, 19??-. She seems to have begun publishing under the name M. Enjumet during the 1950s, changed later name to M. Cachon-Enjumet, but from the late 1960s as M. Cachon only. The aberrant Radiolarian? species name Nothotripodiscinus johannismonicae Deflandre, 1972 is a tribute to them both.

Franco Caci, 19??-, Belgian-Italian friend of Guido T. Poppe – active diver and nature lover. [Calliotropis francocacii  Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006]. (G. Poppe kindly provided this information).

Lacking information about P.T. Caddey, 19??-, Primbee, New South Wales, who collected the type lot of Terebra caddeyi Bratcher & Cernohorsky, 1982 and was collecting both in Papua, New Guinea and in Australia.

The astacid name Eunephrops cadenasi Chace 1939 is named for Dr. José Manuel Cadenas y Aguilera, 18??-1939 (14 Nov.), "Rector of the University of Havana, who deserves acclaim for aiding both in the organization and in bringing to a successful conclusion the present ''Atlantis" expedition".

Dr. Jean Cadenat, (16 Apr. - Marmande, Lot-en-Garonne) 1908-1992 (28 Aug.), born and deceased in Marmande, France, researcher and ichthyologist at l'O.R.S.T.O.M., is honoured in the flatworm names Cadenatella Dollfus, 1946, Nybelinia cadenati Dollfus, 1960 and Jeancadenatia Dollfus, 1946, the fish names Hoplostethus cadenati Quero, 1974, Chromis cadenati Whitley, 1951, Coloconger cadenati Kanazawa, 1961, Cruriraja cadenati Bigelow & Schroeder, 1962, Cynoglossus cadenati Chabanaud, 1947, the copepod name Hatschekia cadenati Nunes-Ruivo, 1954 and the acanthocephalan name Rhadinorhynchus cadenati (Golvan & Houin, 1964) [also Aulopus cadenati Poll, 1953, Barbus cadenati Daget, 1962, Bembrops cadenati Das & Nelson, 1996,, Diplodus sargus cadenati Bauchot & Daget, 1974, Entomacrodus cadenati Springer, 1967, Galeus cadenati Springer, 1966, Lestidium cadenati Maul, 1962, Merluccius cadenati Doutre, 1960, Opeatogenys cadenati Briggs, 1957, Pegusa cadenati Chabanaud, 1954, Synaptura cadenati Chabanaud, 1948, Uranoscopus cadenati Poll, 1959, Uraspis cadenati Blache & Rossignol, 1961, Paguristes cadenati Forest, 1954]. (Dr. Alain Crosnier, MNHN, Paris, kindly provided most of this information).

Donald B. Cadien , 19??-, of Carson, California, must be the person honoured in the tanaid name Tanaopsis cadieni Sieg & Dojiri, 1991.

Lacking information about Caecilia? in the polychaete name Polynoe caeciliae Fauvel, 1913.

Lacking information about Caen in the copepod name Enhydrosoma caeni Raibaut, 1965.

The copepod name Neoscolecithrix caetanoi Alvarez, 1985, was "given in honour of my husband "Caetano Carezzato Sobrinho, 19??-, São Paolo.

Lacking information about Cagnet in the galatheid name Raymunida cagneti Macpherson & Machordom, 2000.

Dr. Guy Cahet, 19??-, Laboratoire Arago, Banyuls-sur Mer, is honoured in the copepod name Paranannopus caheti Soyer, 1964.

Frederic Caillaud of Nantes, (7 June - Nantes) 1787-1869 (1 May - Nantes), famous French traveller & malacologist [Caillaudia Bourguignat, 1883, Conus caillaudii L. C. Kiener, 1845].

Charles Nicolas Henry Caillet, (Saint-Germain-en-Laye (Yvelines) ) 1807-1865 (Basse-Terre (Guadeloupe)), arrived at Guadeloupe in 1840, where he was placed as the head of the court of appeal, but where he also collected shells and crustaceans. His parents were Louis Caillet (1764 Liffol-le-Petit - 1840 Paris) & Françoise Jeanne Louise Lefebure (ca 1774 Paris - 1849 Basse-Terre (capital city of Guadeloupe)) and he married Marie Antoinette Joséphine de Saint-Michel Dunezat (1818 Cayenne - 1845 Basse-Terre) at Cayenne, Guayana in 1836, but after her early death, his new partner became the young Louisia Lavault (ca 1832 Basse-Terre - 1887 Basse-Terre). He is honoured in the madreporarian name Javania cailleti (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864) [Turbo cailletii Fischer & Bernardi, 1856, Haustellum cailleti S. Petit De La Saussaye, 1856]. (All this information kindly arrived from David Quénéhervé, who is a later relative of Caillet's and Lavault's son Armand Lavault (1847 Basse-Terre - 1911 Basse-Terre) - his paternal grandmother's maternal grandfather and David (address: davidqueneherve@yahoo.fr) is very interested in information about the collections of his relative Henry Caillet).

The gastropod name Conus cailliaudii Jay, 1846 (a synonym of C. ventricosus Gmelin, 1791) is in honour of the French naturalst Frédéric Cailliaud, (9 June - Nantes) 1787-1869 (1 May - Nantes), mainly known as a traveller (in Egypt, Nubia and Ethiopia) and mineralogist.

The ostracod name Bathyconchoecia caini C. Ellis, 1989 is honouring her supervisor, Prof. Arthur James Cain, (25 July) 1921-1999 (20 Aug.), (Liverpool University), ex-Edward Grey Institute Oxford), who was a noted ornithologist and was also very much involved in evolutionary biology. More. (Dr. Martinn V. Angel, Southampton, kindly provided this information).

Dr. Stephen Douglas Cairns, (26 Nov. - Port Sulphur, Louisiana) 1949-, Research Zoologist, Curator of Cnidaria, Invertebrate Zoology, Systematic Biology at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, is honoured in the polychaete name Gorgoniapolynoe cairnsi Pettibone, 1991 (and in the cretaceous scleractinian name Levicyathus cairnsi Filkorn, 1994, Pacifigorgia cairnsi Breedy & Guzman, 2003). (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly provided this information).

Jane Caitlin, 19??-, the younger daughter of the author of Naudoliva caitlinae Kilburn, 1989, i.e. the daughter of the South African malacologist Richard N. Kilburn (q.v.).

The genus Calanus Leach, 1816 is named for an old gymnosophist (jain), which the men in the Macedonian army called Kalanos, ca 406-323 (Mar.) b. C., after he - against his sect leader Dandamis' wish - had followed Alexander's army westwards from Taxila (between Indus and Hydaspes), because each morning when saying hello to the soldiers, he used a phrase, which the soldiers heard as "kalan". Likely his phrase may have been something like "kalyam" meaning "may it be good". However, after reaching the Susa area, he felt his age (perhaps also the colder climate - which was not always suitablle for a completely nude person) and arranged a funeral pile, which he entered against Alexander's wish. The king arranged a tournament in honour of "Kalanos". According to Plutarchos his real name was Sfinas. Leach evidently in his imagination found a parallel of how the copepod used its antennulae for swimming and how he thought the gymnosophist used his arms when greeting the soldiers each morning.

Pietro Calcara, (16 Feb. - Palermo) 1819-1854 (24 Aug. - Villabate), Italian malacologist.

Dr. Dale R. Calder, 1941-, Hydroid researcher at the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, working in the W Atlantic area, now retired, but still active [Hydractinia calderi Bouillon, Medel & Peña Cantero, 1997, Zyzzyzus calderi Petersen, 1990].

Prof. Dr. Roy L. Caldwell, 19??-, US (UCLA) carcinologist and stomatopod specialist [Gonodactylellus caldwelli Erdmann & Manning, 1998]. Namesakes are the US biologist and malacologists David Keller Caldwell, 1928-, (who i.a. published the book "The world of the bottlenosed dolphin") and Joan Caldwell, 1937-1996.

Dr. Gary Nathan Calkins, (18 Jan. - Valparaiso, Indiana) 1869-1943 (4 Jan. - Scarsdale, New York), PhD at Columbia Univ. in 1897, US protozoologist [Calkinsia Lackey, 1960, Strombidium calkinsi Kahl, 1932, Chilodonella calkinsi Kahl, 1928, Paramecium calkinsi Woodruff, Flabellula calkinsi Page, 1983, Dysteria calkinsi Kahl, 1931, Paramecium calkinsi Woodruff, 1921, Gruberia calcinsi Beltran, 1933, Strombidium calkinsi Fauré-Fremiet, 1932].

Richard Ellsworth Call, (13 Mar. - Brooklyn) 1856-1917 (New York), US Malacologist.

Dr. Paul Callomon, 19??-, author of books on Japanese mollusks and collection manager in the Department of Malacology at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Taxonomist, described several species. [Nassaria callomoni Poppe, Tagaro & Fraussen, 2008].

Prof. Jacques Callot, 19??-, Strasbourg?, is honoured in the acanthocephalan name Echinorhynchus calloti Golvan, 1969. He published about different parasitological items between around 1935-1969.

William Thomas Calman, (29 Dec. - Dundee, Angus) 1871-1952 (29 Sep.), disciple of D'Arcy Thompson (q.v.), specialist of crustaceans (especially cumaceans) at the British Museum (Nat. Hist) [Calmanostraca, Calmania Laurie, 1906, Pycnophyes calmani Southern, 1914, Merhippolyte calmani Kemp & Sewell, Neocallichirus calmani (Nobili, 1904), Eocuma calmani Fage, 1928, Periclimenes calmani Tattersall, 1921, Bopyriscus calmani (Richardson, 1905)].

Luigi Caltabellotta, 19??-, Italian malacologist. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly provided the photo).

Marta Calva, 19??-, biologist at MNHN Madrid [Turbonilla martae Penas & Rolan, 1997].

Naval Captain Edward Killwick Calver, (6 Dec.) 1813-1892 (28 Oct.), the commander of "Porcupine", is honoured in the echinoid names Calveria Carpenter, Jeffreys & Thomson, 1870 & Calveriosoma Mortensen, 1934 and the scleractinian name Caryophyllia calveri Duncan, 1873. Calver was also a cartographer and writer and was very much appreciated by Wyville Thomson (q.v.)

Henry Hunter Calvert, 1816-1882, English vice-consul in Alexandria (Egypt) [Calvertia Bourguignat, 1880, Bulimus calverti Bourguignat, 1876]. An UK malacologist and mineralogy collector, John Frederick Calvert, 1811-1897, was a namesake.

The French bryozoologist, Professeur universitaire de zoologie générale et appliquée, Louis Calvet, 1868-1930, was born in Rodome, died in Perpignan [Terminoflustra calveti (Guérin-Ganivet, 1911), Calvetia Borg, 1944, Adeonella calveti (Canu & Bassler, 1930), Triticella calveti d'Hondt & Hayward, 1981].

Calvin : (see Gislén).

Lacking information about Calwell in the bryozooan name Calwellia Wyville Thomson, 1858. Possibly a tribute to the physician Dr. Alexander Calwell, 18??-1???, of Belfast?

The nudibranch name Eubranchus yolandae Hermosillo & Valdes, 2007, is in honour of Yolanda Esther Camacho-Garcia, 19??-, Museo de Zoologia, Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, for her contributions to the knowledge of Pacific opisthobranchs.

Phillip G. Cambridge, (2 June - Cheddar) 1918-1993 (29 May), British RAF employee and shell collector.

Georg Josef Camel (or Kamel), (21 Apr. - Brune, Moravia) 1661-1706 (2 May - Manila), Jesuit lay brother, who was one of pioneer collectors of natural history objects in the Philippine Islands. He was a correspondent of e.g. John Ray, James Petiver, and the Dutch physician Willem Ten Rhijne

Verney Lovett Cameron, (1 July - Radipole, Dorsetshire) 1844-1894 (24 Mar. - near Leighton Buzzard, after fall from horseback), English traveller, trying - in vain - to succour Livingstone, he became the first to pass through Africa from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic between 1873-75 [Cameronia Bourguignat, 1879, Bulimus cameroni Bourguinat,1879, Cleopatra cameroni Bourguignat, 1879, Paramelania cameroniana Bourguignat, 1885].

Lacking information about Cameron in the monogenean name Osphyobothrus cameroni Gupta & Krishna, 1980. Possibly a tribute to Alexander Thomas Cameron, (London) 1882-1947 (25 Sep. - Winnipeg), Canadian fisheries researcher? Another British namesake and zoologist was Alfred Ernest Henderson Cameron, 18??-1952 (27 Ferb.). Still another namesake is Dr. Christopher B. Cameron, 19??-, (PhD at Univ. of Alberta in 2000), Université de Montréal, earlier at Bamfield Marine Station, British Columbia, who is interested in i.a. enteropneusts.

Alexander (Alec) Allen Cameron, 1899-1973 (4 July), Harwood Island, Clarence River Valley, northern coast of New South Wales, a farmer who collected a lot of marine creatures sent to Australian zoologist. He is honoured in the cowry name Evanaria hirundo cameroni Iredale, 1939 (not longer considered as a subspecies), the nudibranch names Doris cameroni (Allan, 1947) & Noumea cameroni Burn, 1966 (today considered to be only a colour variety of another species).

Lacking information about Camot in the amphipod name Austrocephaloides camoti (Barnard 1967).

Dr. Antonio Frederico Campaner, 1945-1989 (18 Aug. - (complications after a stroke)), Brazil (Sao Paulo) calanoid taxonomist.

Enzo Campani, (7 July - Livorno) 1945-, Italian hobby malacologist and professor of General Physics in Livorno.

The parasitologist Ronald A. Campbell, 19??-, from the University of Massachusets at Dartmouth, is honoured in the flatworm name Brachyenteron campbelli Bray & Gibson, 1986. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly provided the University address).

G. Bruce Campbell, M.D., 1934-1973, provided relevant literature to the author of Terebra campbelli Burch, 1965. Campbell was also a collector of Typhinae [Agatrix campbelli (Shasky, 1961), Typhis campbelli Radwin & D' Attilio, 1976]. He should not be mixed up with the namesake Bruce M. Campbell, 19??-, who arrived at the Queensland Museum as Curatoer of Zoology in 1964 after having been a postgraduate student of Prof. W. Stephenson (q.v.) and continued to publish on crab taxonomy (and on other decapods as well).

Lacking information about Campbell in the gastropod name Strombus vittatus campbelli Griffith & Pidgeon, 1834, but perhaps found at Campbell Island?.

Lacking information about Campbell in the South African skate name Dipturus campbelli (Wallace, 1967), now considered to be a synonym of D. pullopunctatus (J.L.B. Smith, 1964).

John H. Campbell, 1847-1897, US Malacologist.

Lacking information about Campbell in the New Zealand cephalopod name Octopus campbelli (Smith, 1902). Possibly a tribute to the ornithological collector in Australia Archibald James Campbell, (18 Feb. - Fitzroy) 1853-1929 (11 Sep. - Box Hill),?

Campbell : (see also the Terra Nova expedition, 1910-).

Campillo : (see the specific name mecicorum).

The crab name Ernestotheres Manning, 1993 was dedicated to Prof. Ernesto Campos-González, 19??-, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Mexico, "whose studies on American pinnotherids provided a framework and stimulus for the revision proposed here".

The harpacticoid name Attheyella (Chappuisella) camposi Ebert & Noodt, 1975 is honouring Prof. Hugo Campos Cereceda, (28 May - Santiago) 1935-1998 (15 May - by a heart attack, when field working), Instituto de Zoología, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. He was minly interested in limnic ichthyology.

Dr, Antonio Campoy, 19??-, Spanish polychaetologist [Streptosyllis campoyi Brito, Núñez & San Martin, 2000].

The copepod name Enhydrosoma cananeiae Jakobi, 1955 is not honouring a person's name, but is described from a shore region in Brazil named Cananéia. (André Trombeta kindly provided this information).

The Cuban conchologist Ferdinand de Candé, 1801-1867, is honoured in the in the gastropod names Acteocina candei d'Orbigny, 1842, Antillophos candei (d'Orbigny, 1842), Epitonium candeanum (d'Orbigny,1842), Acteocina candei (d'Orbigny, 1842), Gibbula candei (d'Orbigny, 1844), Patella candei d'Orbigny, 1840 and in the bivalve names Diplodonta candeana (d'Orbigny, 1842) and Tellina candeana d'Orbigny, 1842. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida, kindly provided this information).

de Candolle : (see Lamarck).

Lacking information about Canek in the cyclopoid name Halicyclops caneki Fiers, 1995, but perhaps not a person's name - possibly a shortening like CAlifornia Network of Educational Charters or something similar.

Giovanni Canestrini, (26 Dec. - Revò d'Anaunia) 1835-1900 (14 Feb. - Padova), honoured in the fish name Pomatoschistus canestrinii (Ninni, 1883), published about zoology and comparative anatomy in Milano in 1869-70.

Canet in the gastropod name Bartschia canetae (Clench & Aguayo, 1944) : (see Farfante).

The gastropod names Glyphostoma canfieldi (Dall, 1871), Turbonilla canfieldi Dall & Bartsch, 1907 and Odostomia canfieldi Dall, 1908 may honour Dr. Colbert Austin Canfield, (13 June - Chardon, Ohio) 1828-1873 (10 Jan. - Monterey, Calif.). According to Rollin G. Watkins' "History of Monterey, Santa Cruz and San Benito Counties (1925): "Dr. Canfield, a native of Ohio, was the first resident physician at The Presidio and was for years an official of the old customs house in Monterey. ... During a long period Dr. Canfield acted as the Pacific coast agent and representative of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington and his special labors in behalf of that institution in the field of conchology created for him a permanent monument of memory in that engrossing field." (David Hollombe, Los Angeles, kindly provided all this information).

Prof. Herbert Graham Cannon, (14 Apr. - Wimbledon) 1897-1963 (6 Jan. - London), Crustacean researcher, professor in Sheffield and Manchester. In later years he became a defender of Lamarckism.

Dr. Lester Robert Glen Cannon, (4 Sep. - St. Neot's, Huntingdon, England) 1940-, Australian freeliving platyhelminth researcher, who followed his parents to Redcliffe, outside Brisbane, when they emigrated in 1950. [Polystyliphora cannoni Curini-Galletti, 1998, Syndesmis cannoni Jondelius, 1996, Urosporidium cannoni Anderson, Newman & Lester, 1993].

Prof. Jean Cantacuzène, (25 Nov. - Bucarest) 1863-1943 (14 Jan.), Roumanian physician and microbiologist, who i.a. worked with toxins of actinians. Another namesake is Dr. Alexandre Cantacuzène, 1???-19??, Jean's son, stationed in Roscoff, because Jean, who was a direct offspring of the Cantacuzino who reigned in Byzans during the mediterranean, e.g. the emperor Johannes V Palaiologos 1347-1354, married in 1898 and got two sons, Jean and Alexander. Alexandre (or Alexander) achived his PhD in 1930 on the thesis "Contribution à l'étude des tumeurs bactériennes chez les Algues Marines" and is honoured in the following species: [Synaptiphilus cantacuzenei Bocquet & Stock, 1957, Thaumastoderma cantacuzeni Lévi, 1958, Rhaptapagis cantacuzeni Bouillon & Deroux, 1967].

Dr. Carl August Nilsson-Cantell, (28 Dec. - Visby) 1893-1987 (14 Jan. - Visby), Swedish cirripedian researcher from the island of Gotland in the Baltic. Disciple of Appellöf (q.v.) and Wirén (q.v.) in Uppsala and defending his PhD thesis in 1921, after which he served as teacher in different schools in Landskrona, Skövde and Vänersborg, before returning to his home town in 1936. He was born Nilsson, but added during his years in Uppsala the CAN (his initials) + the suffix tell to his name, because there were other Nilsson's during that period at the institution. [Balanus cantelli, Cantelli]. His son Dr. Carl-Erik Cantell, 1938-, also a zoologist, made his dissertation on heteronemerteans in Uppsala.

Dr. Theodor(e) Edvard (Edward) Cantor, 1809-1860, Danish physician and naturalist, working for the British East India Company, who published a "Catalogue of Malayan fishes... " in Calcutta in 1850.

Prof. François Joseph Cantraine, (1 Dec. - Ellezelles) 1801-68 (22 Dec. - Gent), Belgian zoologist. He wes intersted in natural history and began assisting Prof. F.J. Adelmann of the Louvain University. In 1823 he came to the Rijks Museum van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden to learn about preservation methods and in 1825 he joined an officer interested in archaeology on his trip to the Mediterranean region, in order to make zoological collections for the museum, returning in 1833 with very extensive collections (especially regarding molluscs and crustaceans). In 1835 he accepted a professorship at the Belgian University of Gent, a position he held until 1850, when he retired because of bad health. He published a treatise on Mediterranean molluscs based on his own collections and he kept living in Gent until he died [Naiades cantrainii Delle Chiaje, 1830, Cantrainea Jeffreys, 1883].

Eugène Georges Canu, (11 Sep. - Trith-Saint-Léger (Nord)) 1864-1952 (6 Jan. - Boulogne-sur-Mer (Pas-de-Calais)), from France (not identical with the bryozoan researcher Ferdinand Canu, 1863-1932, of Versailles - and not related) published in 1892 a thick work about copepods " Les copépodes du Boulonnais, morphologie, embryologie, taxonomie" Trav. Stat. Zool. Wimereux. Vol. 6. Between 1928-1932 he was politically engaged for Parti républicain socialiste et socialiste français. [Canuella T. & A. Scott, 1893, Notodelphys canui Roland, 1962, Lequerrea canui Illg & Dudley, 1980, Haplostoma canui Chatton & Harant, 1924, Lichomolgus canui G.O. Sars, 1917, Asterocheres canui Giesbrecht, 1897, Collocheres canui Giesbrecht, 1897].

Lacking information about Canut in the asteroid name Leptasterias canuti Heding, 1936. Possibly referring to an old Danish king Knud, somtimes spelled Canut?

Dr. André Capart, 1914-1991, received his PhD in Zoology in 1941, under the Belgian Oceanographer/Zoologist Prof. Gustave Gilson, 1859-1944, who had been a student of P. J. van Beneden (q.v.). Gilson was van Beneden's assistant at the Catholic University of Louvain and himself did some work on copepods. Gilson opened up oceanography in Belgium by surveying that country's shores, but his studies also took him to all oceans. In 1909, Gilson became Director of the Royal Museum of Natural History [Pseudocuma gilsoni Bacescu, 1950, Odostomia gilsoni Dautzenberg, 1913]. Capart's interests were mainly toward parasitic copepods, and his investigations took him to Antarctica, Central Africa, New Guinea, and various oceans in-between. I.a. he led a Belgical expedition in the South Atlantic. He began work in 1938 as an aide-naturalist at the Royal Museum of Natural History in Belgium; 20 years later he was appointed Director of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Science, retiring in 1978. He is remembered in two parasitic copepod species and in the freshwater species Eucyclops caparti Lindberg, 1951 [Scyllarus caparti Holthuis, 1952, Fulvia caparti Nicklès, 1955, Fusinus caparti (Adam & Knudsen, 1955), Eledone caparti W. Adam, 1950]. (Dr. David Damkaer kindly contributed this information and Dr. Jan Mees, Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee, Oostende, kindly provided the pictures of Dr. Capart and Dr. Gilson).

Prof. Giovanni Capellini, (23 Aug. - La Spezia) 1833-1922 (28 May - Bologna), Italian palaeontologist. First he teached natural history in Genova, moved then to the palaeontological chair at the University of Bologna, being its Rector Magnificus during 1888, when the University celebrated its first 800 years [Capellinia Trinchese, 1874]. {Picture / courtesy of R. Giannuzzi-Savelli}.

Félix António de Brito Capello, 1828-1879, naturalist in Museu da Escola Politecnica de Lisboa [Peroderma capelloi Ozorio].

Lacking information about Caper in the bivalve name Pitar (Hyphantosoma) caperi Lamprell & Healy, 1997.

Pierre Capier, 19??-, French conchologist and collector who buildt a major collection of aesthetic shells. [Stomatella capieri  Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006]. (G. Poppe kindly provided this information).

Lacking information about Capra in the hydroid name Barnettia caprai Schuchert, 1996. The honoured person is likely not the Genova coleopterologist Felice Capra, 1896-1991.

Miss Hertha Capriles, 19??-, "Secretary and Librarian of the Caribbean Marine Biological Institute, Curaçao, and most kind hostess of Dr. Diva Diniz Corrêa during her stay in Willemstad" (likely born around 1910-15, because her parents married in Nov. 1902 and she was their 4:th child) is honoured in the name Polycera herthae Marcus & Marcus, 1963 (and also in the Tetrastemma herthae Corrêa, 1963 - as kindly suggested by André Trombeta, Brazil).

Captain Guiseppe Capurro, 18??-19??, collected fish in the Antilles and is honoured in the fish names Mugil capurrii (Perugia, 1892) and Serranus capurri Perugia, 1896.

The harpacticoid name Nitocra cari Petkovski, 1954 was named for Prof. Lazar Car, (3 July - Sv. Ivan, Zelina) 1860-1942 (13 Mar. - Zagreb), carcinologist, hydrobiologist, and author of 14 papers about Adriatic copepods from 1884 to 1914. Car was the Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Croatian University (in Ljubljana or Zagreb?). One of his students was Jovan Hadzi (q.v.). (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly provided this information).

Lacking information about Caraion in the copepod name Nitocrella caraioni Petkovski, 1976. Although the masculin ending of the species name, it is perhaps likely that the Romanian ostracodologist Francisca Elena Caraion, 19??-, who has published on ostracods since the 1960s is honoured.

Angela Carausu, 1910-69, Romanian malacologist.

Carazzi : (see Giglioli).

Dr. (Prof. Emer.) Carlos Salvador Carbonell Mas, 1917-, of Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguayan entomologist), was among donors of marine invert. specimens to the US National Museum in 1957. He has published on Lepidoptera and mainly on grasshoppers and is honoured in several non marine eponymes and is likely also the person honoured in the parasitic nematod names Crassicauda carbonellii Raga & al., 1988 and Cucullanus carbonellii Campos, Carbonell & Rodriquez-Babio, 1993. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly provided much of this info and André Trombeta, Brazil, kindly provided the full name and date).

M. Paul Carbonnier, 18??-1???, collected molluscs in the Aden area and is honoured in the gastropod name Murex carbonnieri Jousseaume, 1881.

Dr. Alberto R. Carcelles, 1897-1977, malacologist at Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. He published on the marine molluscs of Patagonia in 1950 [ Carcellesia Farfante, 1952, Bulbus carcellesi Dell, 1990, Calliostoma carcellesi Clench & Aguayo, 1940].

Phenacovolva lenorae Cardin & Walls, 1980 was named for the first author's (US malacologist Charles "Chuck" Cardin, 1941-2000) daughter Lenore Jeannette Cardin, 19??-.

Carel : (see von Vaupel Klein).

The gastropod name Yaquinabyssia careyi McLean, 1988 and the amphipod name Ampelisca careyi Dickinson, 1982 is not honouring the US sociologist and malacologist Henry Charles Carey, 1792-1879, who is too old to be the honouree, but instead Dr. Andrew G. Carey, Jr., 19??-, of Oregon State University, retireing in 2000, who was a colleague of Dr. John Dickinson, the author of one of the names.

Mr. Terry Carless, 19??-200? (named the late in 2007, but lived in Apr. 2005), of Bribie Island and the Brisbane branch of the Malacological Society of Australia [Gadila carlessi Lamprell & Healey, 1998].

Prof. Dr. Oscar Henrik Carlgren, (1 Dec. - Falun) 1865-1954 (10 Aug.), Swedish essential actiniologist; dissertation in Uppsala in 1893, from 1894 working at the Stockholm High School (before it turn into a university), but was working between 1912-30 as a professor of zoology in Lund. His father and his brother were both engineers. [Carlgrenia Stephenson, 1918, Edwardsia carlgreni Williams, 1981, Sagartiomorphe carlgreni Kwietniewski, 1898, Pareledone carlgreni Thore, 1945, Sagartia carlgreni Haddon & Duerden, 1896, Isactinia carlgreni Lager, 1911, Halcurias carlgreni McMurrich, 1901, Antheopsis carlgreni Lager E., 1911, Actinostola carlgreni Wassilieff A., 1908, Urticina carlgreni Clubb J. A., 1902, Telmatactis carlgreni Chintiroglou C.C., Doumenc D.A., & Foubert A., 1989].

Lacking information about Carleena in the Philippine coral name Dendrophyllia carleenae Nemenzo, 1983.

Carlos I, Dom, King of Portugal (Carlos de Braganza), (28 Sep. - Lisboa) 1863-1908 (1 Feb. - Lisboa (was murdered)), was very interested in ocean research.

Is Carlostero in the isopod name Arcturella carlosteroi Reboreda, Wägele & Garmendia, 1994 a person's name?

The gastropod name Thuridilla carlsoni Gosliner, 1995 is a tribute to Clayton H. Carlson, 19??-, Prof. Em. of English, who together with Patty Jo Hoff are studying primarily bubble shell species in their "nudibranch" laboratory at Merizo, Guam. However the nudibranch name Halgerda carlsoni Rudman 1978 is in honour of Dr. Bruce Carlson, 19??-, University of the South Pacific, Fiji

Carmen in Lithophaga carmenae von Cosel 1995 : (see Gofas).

Lacking information about Carol (if not Carolus Linnaeus? (q.v.)) in the gastropod names Melanella carolii Dall, 1889 and Calliostoma caroli Dautzenberg, 1927 and in the cephalopod name Neorossia caroli Joubin, 1902.

Carol in the gastropod name Terebra carolae Bratcher, 1979 : (see Skoglund).

Cirolana Leach, 1818 is one of several anagrams constructed from Carolina, or Caroline (the first name being the latin form of the second); this small letter recombination game concerning names of blood-succing parasites or carrion feeders may thus have been an attack on (according to Niel Bruce, the author of the genus Natatolana, in which the former Cirolana borealis now is placed), or possibly a political contribution in defence of the infelicitous Caroline Amelia Elisabeth of Brunswick, 1768-1821, consort of the British prince, i.e. the 2:nd wife of the future king George IV (after the death of her mother Princess Charlotte in 1817). She was rejected by her unscrupulous dissolute husband, harassed and maltreated in several ways and unfoundedly accused of infidelity. Initially the British people trusted George and shared his opinions. Around the years when Leach described these genera, the heinousness of her husband begun to be noticed, turning the public opinion from the prince in advantage of her. However, broken by her Fate, she died a few years later. Whether W.E. Leach - the originator of these names - really was impressed by her re-evaluation, is however uncertain - as is, if Leach at all thought of Queen Caroline, when starting this game. David Damkaer (in litt.) is pointing out that several of Leach's contemporaries or near-contemporaries said that Leach played with the letters in these names for no other reason than quaintness and that e.g. H.J. Hansen (q.v.) and Robby Kossmann (q.v.) did continue this game (as did Niel Bruce (q.v.)). Others have suggested that Caroline may have been the name of Leach's mistress, but it is not known if he had any, and Leach's affairs with the opposie sex are not known, but he evidently became very fond of the 25 years old Sophie Duvaucel (q.v.), Cuvier's bright and well educated step daughter, when he met her in Paris in 1815 (and the French author 'Stendhal", i.e. Marie Henri Beyle, 1785-1842, is also said to have been very attached to her).

Caron(ia?), 1???-18??, an inhabitant of Sicily, who collected species - at least crabs - for Polydore Roux (q.v.) [Palicus caronii (Roux, 1830)]. (Stefano Palazzi, commented on this name saying: I'm Sicilian and can exclude that the surname "caron" as such could have ever existed in Sicily. There's a surname Caronia (probably derived from the Caronie mountains in N Sicily) instead). Thus, Roux - as a Frenchman - have probably shorted the original spelling of his collector's name, when using it.

Dr. Philip Herbert Carpenter, 1852-1891 (23 Oct. (suicide)), British crinoidologist working at Eton College (zoologist and palaeontologist); in his work of North Atlantic crinoids from 1884, von Graff (q.v.) contributed and described Myzostomum carpenteri [Comaster carpenteri Clark, 1907, Bathymetra carpenteri Clark, 1908, Bathycrinus carpenterii (Danielssen & Koren, 1877)]. Herbert's father William Benjamin Carpenter, (29 Oct. - Exeter, England) 1813-1885 (19 Nov. - London (incinerated, when a naked light ignited the vapours in his "spirit bath")), professor of (medical) physiology at Royal Inst., London from 1845, was together with Wyville Thomson (q.v.) leader of the Lightning expedition in 1868, and later the expeditions with Porcupine, but also worked on echinoderms and foraminiferans. [Carpenteria Gray, 1858, Pheronema carpenteri (Thomson, 1869), Rochinia carpenteri (Thomson, 1873), Dalhousiella carpenteri M'Intosh, 1901, Protoptilum carpenterii Kölliker, 1872, Kophobelemnon carpenterii (Kölliker, 1872), Hemipenaeus carpenteri Wood-Mason, 1891, Nephropsis carpenteri Wood-Mason, 1885, Hormosina carpenteri Brady, 1881]. Herbert and his older brother William Lant Carpenter, 1841-1890, (who became a mecanical engineer, school manager and writer), took part in some of these expeditions. Herbert had 3 more brothers and got a son, Geoffrey Douglas Hale Carpenter, 1882-1953, who became a Professor of Entomology at Oxford University between 1933-1948.

Philip Pearsall Carpenter, (4 Nov. - Bristol) 1819-1877 (24 May - Montréol (typhoid fever)), Clergyman and malacologist in Warrington, England. He was later living and working in Canada. {Picture / courtesy of R. Giannuzzi-Savelli}. His brother Russell Lant Carpenter, (Kiddermenster, Worcester) 1816-1892, published his memoirs. He was also brother of the educational and social reformer Mary Carpenter, (3 Apr. - Exeter) 1807-1877 (14 June), and William B. Carpenter (see above) [Tonicia carpenteri Angas, Megasurcula carpenteriana (Gabb, 1865), Inodrillia carpenteri (Verrill & Smith, 1880), Modiolus carpenteri Soot-Ryen, 1963, Triopha carpenteri (Stearns, 1873), Onchidella carpenteri Binney, 1860, possibly Janthina carpenteri Mörch, 1860, likely Alvania carpenteri (Weinkauff, 1885)]. There is also a (probably not related) Horace Francis Carpenter, (Pawtucket, NE) 1842-1937 (28 Feb. - Edgewood, RI), who e.g. in 1873 published "A catalogue of the shell bearing mollusca of Rhode Island" and in 1879 (in Dall) and in 1892 (in Pilsbry) published on polyplacophorans [likely Nuculana carpenteri (Dall, 1881), possibly Choristes carpenteri Dall 1896, possibly Homalopoma carpenteri (Pilsbry, 1888), possibly Triphora carpenteri (Bartsch, 1907), possibly Cerithiopsis carpenteri Bartsch, 1911, possibly Caecum carpenteri Bartsch, 1920, possibly Barleeia carpenteri Bartsch, 1920, possibly Turbonilla carpenteri Dall & Bartsch, 1909, possibly Tellina carpenteri Dall, 1903] and the US sea shell collector Margaret [Peggy] Helen Carpenter, 1920-1999, is a namesake.

Lacking information about Carpenter in the W African (Angola) fish name Seriola carpenteri Mather, 1971. Likely a little too early name to honour the ichthyologist Dr. Kent E. Carpenter, 19??-, Univ. of Hawaii, but possibly a tribute to William K. Carpenter, 1???-, who collected central African fishes during the 1940s or possibly Edward J. Carpenter, 19??-, being a colleague to Mather at Woods Hole?

Laccking information about Carpenter in the bivalve name Dosinia carpentariana Lamprell & Healy, 1997.

Dr. Christian Carpine, (4 Aug. - Marseilles) 1933-2007 (5 July), doctor in oceanography and "docteur ès sciences " (PhD). He first was a scientific assistant in the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco, then a member of the operational unit of the Cooperative Investigations in the Mediterranean, finally, between 1983 and 1996, curator of the collections of the Oceanographic Museum. The subject of his doctorate thesis was the ecology of the bathyal level in the Western Mediterranean. He published three studies on Octocorallia in 1963, 1975 and 1985. His wife, Dr. Jacqueline Carpine-Lancre, is a historian and devoted an important part of her studies to Prince Albert I of Monaco. [Mesocletodes carpinei Soyer, 1975, Ensayara carpinei Bellan-Santini, 1974, Diastyloides carpinei Bacescu, 1969, Siboglinum carpinei Ivanov,1970, Chrysallida carpinei Van Aartsen, Gittenberger & Goud, 2000]. (Dr. Carpine himself kindly provided the information & the sad information about his decease was kindly provided by his widow).

Dr. Melbourne Romaine Carriker, (25 Feb. - Santa Marta, Colombia) 1915-2007 (25 Feb. - Lewes, Delaware), Colombian / US zoologist and shellfish researcher; the eldest son of the well-known ornithologist Melbourne Armstrong Carriker, jr., (14 Feb. - Sullivan, Illinois) 1879-1965 (27 July -Bucaramanga, Colombia),.

Ferdinando Carrozza,(4 Dec.) 1923-2005 (28 Feb.), Italian shell collector from Soiana (Pisa area), friend of the author of Brachystomia carrozzai van Aartsen,1987 [Barleeia carrozzai van Aartsen & Giannuzzi-Savelli, 1991].

Rachel Louise Carson, (27 May - Springdale, Pennsylvania) 1907-1964 (14 Apr. - Silver Spring, Maryland), US Marine biologist, well-known for her "Silent Spring" [Chicoreus rachelcarsonae Petuch, 1987].

Dr. Alan Norval Carter, (Melbourne) 1926-1989 (Nov.), Australian geologist and foraminiferologist.

Dr. Henry John Carter, (18 Aug.) 1813-1895 (4 May), F.R.S., British army physician (in Bombay) and spongiologist, who published 1894 pages in 127 (or 129?) publications on sponges (totally 238 papers on diverse subjects, e.g. medicine, geology, ethnology, micropaleontology, zoology and botany); he was a friend of J.E. Gray, who was keeper at the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) and engaged Carter to classify the sponges of the museum. He had been to India for 20 years (had landed in Bombay on Feb. 12:th 1842 and returned to England in 1862) serving as army surgeon and civil surgeon, but after his retirement in 1862 he settled at his birth place Budleigh Salterton and began as spongiologist (he had received 100 pounds from the Royal Asiatic Society in order to buy a microscope). I.a. he worked up the Porcupine material. Carter married the around 21 years younger Anne Doyle from Sligo, Ireland in 1864 and they got a daughter Annie in 1866. In Oct. 4:th 1888 he had a paralytic attack, mainly manifested by impaired powers of speech and vision, however gradually becoming better, but was never completely recovered. [Acanthella carteri Dendy, 1889, Carterella Potts, 1881, Carteria Gray, 1872, Carterias Schwartschevski, 1905, Carteriospongia Hyatt, 1877, Chondropsis carteri Dendy, 1895, Clathria carteri Topsent, 1889, Coelocarteria Burton, 1934, Echinoclathria carteri Rildey & Dendy, 1886, Ecionemia carteri Dendy, 1905, Erylus carteri Sollas, 1888, Forcepia carteri Dendy, 1896, Geodia carteri Sollas, 1888, Haliclona carteri Burton, 1959, Hamacantha carteri Topsent, 1904, Leucandra carteri Dendy, 1892, Pericharax carteri Polejaeff, 1883, Pronax carteri Dendy, 1897, Pseudoesperia carteri Deny & Frederick, 1924, Spongia carteri Burton, 1930, Spongilla carteri Bowerbank, 1858, Stellettinopsis carteri Ridley, 1884, Sycon carteri Dendy, 1892, Thorecta carteri Lendenfeld, 1889, Vioa carteri Ridley, 1881, Axinella carteri (Dendy), the algae genus Carteria Diesing, 1866]. (Dr. Rob van Soest kindly provided part of this information).

Herbert James Carter, (23 Apr. - Marlborough, Wiltshire, England) 1858-1940 (16 Apr. - Wahroonga, Sydney), had migrated to Australia in 1882 and became a schoolmaster and entomologist (mainly coleopterologist) .

John Ripley Carter, (Bradford, Yorkshire) 1908-1993, British diatom researcher.

Sqamopleura carteri Iredale & Basst-Hull, 1926 was named for Thomas Carter, (6 Apr. - Masham, Yorkshire) 1863-1931 (29 Jan. - Yorkshire), well know British-Australian ornithologist, who collected chitons in Western Australia. He moved to Australia in 1887 and returned to settle in England in 1914, but made some later visits to Australia. Also four species and fourteen sub-species of birds are named after him.

The haptophyte name Hymenomonas carterae Manton & Peterfi, 1969, must likely be a tribute to the British algae researcher Dr. Nellie Carter, 1895-1987.

Dr. John Dennis Carthy, 1923-1972, is beeing honoured in the harpacticoid name Pseudonychocamptus carthyi Hamond, 1968. Carthy has published on invertebrate behaviour, animal receptors, animal navigation, etc.

Lacking information about Cartier, 18??-1???, in the rhizocephalan name Sacculina cartieri Kossman, 1872. Possibly, but perhaps not likely, honouring the French seafarer and colonizer of "Canada" (a name derived from the word "kanata" in Huron & Iroquoi languages - meaning village or community) Jacques Cartier, (31 Dec. - St. Malo) 1491-1557 (1 Sep. - St. Malo)? The Cartier Island between Australia and Indonesia is not directly named after him, but after the ship Cartier.

Lacking information about Cartier in the hydroid name Cladocarpus cartieri Bedot, 1921, but possibly a tribute to the above mentioned J. Cartier?.

Prof. Julius Victor Carus, (25 July - Leipzig) 1823-1903 (10 Mar. - Leipzig), professor in Leipzig; translated Darwin to German; founded in 1878 the journal Zoologischer Anzeigen [Helgicirrha cari (Haeckel, 1864), possibly Nitokra cari Petkovski, 1954]. He was a distant relative of Prof. Dr. Carl Gustav Carus, (3 Jan. - Leipzig) 1789-1869 (28 July - Dresden), German physician, painter (mainly of landscapes) and natural philosopher and a friend of Goethe, from Leipzig, who in 1814 was appointed professor in Dresden after a dissertation in comparative anatomy in 1811 in Leipzig. Carl Gustav Carus worked on many animal taxons, i.a. ascidians.

João Paiva de Carvalho, 1903-1961, Brazilian hydrobiologist and oceanographer is honoured in the following species names: Schizoporella carvalhoi Marcus 1937, Holoporella carvalhoi, Bugula carvalhoi Marcus 1949, Anaplodactylus carvalhoi, Amphigonophorus carvalhoi, Plicastoma carvalhoi, Amphiscolops carvalhoi Marcus 1952, Solariella carvalhoi Lopes & Cardoso 1958, Modiolus carvalhoi Klappenbach 1965, Lupinoblennius paivai Pinto 1958. Possibly the same persom may be honoured also in the following gastropod name: Solariella carvalhoi Lopes & Cardoso, 1958 or possibly the engineer and entomologist José Passos de Carvalho, (3 Jan. - Loulé) 1937-2004 (23 Mar.), who published on Brazil copepods in 1952, but perhaps more likely the Portuguese malacologist Rogério Nogueira de Carvalho, 1884-1960, who in 1929-45 published Cat. Invert. Mus. Coimbra or the Portuguese malacologist Alfredo Paulo de Carvalho, 1918-1990. Another candidate may be the Brazilian zoologist José Cândido de Mello Carvalho, (11 June) 1914-1994 (21 Oct.). (André Trombeta, Brazil, kindly provided most of the information).

Cary : (see Agassiz).

Dr. Jean-Paul Casanova, 194?-, French Chaetognatha researcher. PhD. thesis in 1977 at the University of Provence, Marseille.

Lacking information about Caspers in the isopod name Pseudione caspersi Gruner, 1966, the nematode names Enoploides caspersi Riemann, 1966, Syringolaimus caspersi Gerlach, 1951 and the polychaete name Pronospio (Prionospio) caspersi Laubier, 1962. However at least some of the German eponyms may likely honour Prof. Dr. Hubert Caspers, around 1939-, now retired, but likely still active in Hamburg. Another H. Caspers published on Helgoland Invertebrates from the 1930s to at least the 1950s and may be the honoured person in older names.

The cowry name Erosaria granulataa cassiaui (Burgess, 1965) is in honour of Dr. Pierre Cassiau, 19??-, Papeete, Tahiti.

The South Shetland Islands polychaete name Tetreres cassidyi Kirtley, 1994, is possibly not directly honouring a person, but from the Cassidy Glacier area of the islands, a name in honour of William A Cassidy, 19??-, US (Univ. of Pittsburgh) Antarctic meteorite hunter?

Cassivelaunus (also named Cassibelanus or Caswallawn) was a British chieftain and warlord, son of king Beli Mawr, younger brother of king Lud (who had died before Caesar returned to England to fight Cassivelaus' troups) and uncle of Mandubracius, living north of the Thames, who gathered British tribes to resist Caesar's legions around 54 before Christ. He eventually had to give up and became eventuelly a friend of Caesar, but dies 6 years later and is buried in York. [Corystes cassivelaunus (Pennant, 1777)]

The French botanist Jean Louis Martin Castagne, (11 Nov. - Marseilles) 1785-1858 (Miramas), French merchant in Constantinopel, but returned to France in 1846 and became Mayor in Miramas, is honoured in the brown algal name Castagnea Derb. & Sol. and the red algal name Polysiphonia castagnei Kützing, 1863, because he was also very interested in botany and published about several new botanical species.

Jacques Castel, (Apr. - Pas-de-Calais) 1951-1997 (12 Jan.), meiobenthologist at the marine station Arcachon. (Obituary in Monoculus 33).

Lacking information about Castell in the pantopod name Ascorhynchus castelli (Dohrn, 1881), but possibly a tribute to the Trieste? arachnologist Giorgio Castelli, 18??-1???.

Cyril Philip Castell, 1907-1972, UK Malacologist.

Dr. Zulma Judith "Tota" Castellanos, 19??-, "eminent malacologist and Professor at La Plata National University, Argentina" [Terebellides totae Bremec & Elías, 1999].

François Louis Nompart de Caumont de la Porte (comte) de Castelneau, (25 Dec. - London) 1810-1880 (4 Feb. - East Melbourne), French explorer in South America between 1843-47, who despite becoming almost completely blind when returning to Paris, published 15 volumes on geography, botany and fauna of South America during the 1850s [Dilocarcinus castelnaui H. Milne Edwards, 1853]. Likely also the SE Atlantic skate name Atlantoraja castelnaui Miranda-Ribeiro, 1907 may be a tribute to the same person. (More about him under Laporte)

The gastropod name Aenator castillai McLean & Andrade, 1982 is likely a tribute to Juan Carlos Castilla, 1940-, malacologist from Chile.

The mysid name Brasilomysis castroi  Bacescu, 1968 may likely honour the Brazilian carcinologist Prof. Alceu Lemos de Castro, (13 Nov.) 1920-1988 (27 Sep. - Rio de Janeiro), who also is honoured in the names Clianella castroi (Loyola e Silva, 1960) (isopoda), Atlantoscia alceui Ferrara & Taiti, 1981 and Marcusiaxius lemoscastroi Rodrigues & Carvalho, 1972 (as Meticonaxius lemoscastroi : Kensley & Heard, 1991). There is also a Portuguese malacologist José da Silva e Castro, 19??-, with a similar name. (André Trombeta kindly provided this information).

Dr. René L.A. Catala, 1901-1988, from Vosges, was interested in entomology as a child, but spent 17 years of his younger days in Madagascer and detected the fascinacion of coral reefs when he arrived at Nossi be in 1936. He later moved to New Caledonia and there he has become honoured in the scleractinian name Alveopora catalai Wells, 1968 and in the octocoral names Lobophytum catalai (Tixier-Durivault, 1957) & Alcyonium catalai Tixier-Durivault, 1970. René Catala and his wife Ida Stucki, 19??-, [Siphonogorgia stuckiae Tixier-Durivault, 1970, possibly Thalassoma stuckiae Whitley, 1959, Sphenocarcinus stuckiae Guinot & Richer de Forges, 1986, Rochinia stuckiae (Guinot & Richer de Forges, 1986)] founded in 1956 the Nouméa aquarium, New Caledonia [Catalaphyllia Wells, 1971, Doropygus catalai Illg, 1970, Apogon catalai Fourmanoir, 1973, Thromidia catalai Pope & Rowe, 1977 (perhaps the most heavy sea star in the world), Noumea catalai Rudman, 1990, Actaea catalai Guinot, 1976].

The gastropod name Lyria mikoi Kosuge, 1984 is in honour of Miko Cataldo, 19??-, (Torre del Greco, Italy) for his contribution to shell collecting. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided this information).

Mrs. Jean McCreery Cate, 1917-2001, US amateur malacologist (specializing in Mitridae), born in Detroit, Michigan and living in Los Angeles [Thala jeancatae Sphon, 1978, Aperiovula jeanae C.N. Cate, 1973, Zoila jeaniana C.N. Cate, 1968] and wife of the author of the last species Crawford Neill Cate, 1905-1981, US malacologist, specializing in cowries [Cypraea catei Schilder, 1963].

The British naturalist and writer Mark Catesby, (3 Apr.) 1683-1749 (23 Dec. - London), who visited and collected in i.a. Virginia and Bahamas, is likely the person honoured in the gastropod name Rissoina catesbyana d'Orbigny, 1842.

Who is Catharin(a/e) / Catherin(a/e) in 1) the Indian Ocean sipunculan name Thysanocardia catharinae (Grube, 1868), in 2) the polychaete name Aricidea (Acmira) catherinae Laubier, 1967, and in 3) the cirripudian name Catherinum Zevina, 1978? There appears to be several marine organisms honored with names of different Catharine's. One example is the hydroid Plumularia catharina Johnston, from the deep waters around the British Isles. (see Johnston).

The copepod name Amphiascus catharinae T. Scott, 1906 : (see Thomas Scott).

The polychaete name Eudistylia catharinae Banse, 1979 : (see Hobson)

Catherine : (see also the Terra Nova expedition, 1910-).

Miss Agnes Catlow, 1807?-89 (aged 82), published in 1845 in London "The conchologist's nomenclator. A catalogue of the recent species of shells included unter the subkingdom 'Mollusca'". Miss Catlow was also an amateur botanist.

Dr. Maurice Gaston Corneille Caullery, (5 Sep. - Bergues) 1868-1958 (13 July - Paris), French marine biologist in Paris [Caulleriella Chamberlin, 1919, Dipolydora caulleryi (Mesnil, 1897), Drilonereis caulleryi Pettibone, 1957, Staurosoma caulleryi Okada, 1927, Ctenoplana (Planoctena) caulleryi Dawydoff, 1936, Lanice caulleryi Holthe, 1986, Lissoclinnum caulleryi (Ritter & Forsyth, 1917)].

Dr. Pietro Achille Cavalli-Molinelli, (Sale) 1865-1958 (Sale), Italian physician, who wrote about the biological and mineralogical results of the Italian polar expedition in 1899-1900, (in which he took part), lead by the Duke of Abruzzi, Prince Luigi Amadeo Guiseppe Maria Ferdinando Francesco di Savoia-Aosta, (29 Jan. - Madrid, Spain, (during the short time when his father reigned as king Amadeo of Spain)) 1873-1933 (18 Mar. - Jowhar, Somalia), a grandson of king Victor Emmanuel II [likely Hyalosphenia savoiei Chardez, 1978] is presumably honoured in Tomopteris cavalli Daniele Rosa, 1907. Rosa worked in Torino. Cavalli-Molinelli also took part in the circumnavigation with Liguria in 1902-05.

Lacking information about Cavanagh in the gastropod name Globovula cavanaghi (Iredale, 1931).

A brittlestar in the genus Astrophiura was named by Koehler in 1915 honouring the English (Norfolk) Red Cross nurse Edith Louisa Cavell, (4 Dec.) 1865-1915 (12 Oct.), who was shot by Germans, because she helped soldiers to escape from occupied Belgium to the neutral Holland. Some roses and a kind of tea are also named for her. However, no Astrophiura cavellae or A. edithae seem to be found in species lists today. (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly provided this information).

Filippo Cavolini, (8 Apr. - Napoli) 1756-1810 (13 Mar.? - Napoli), who was a rich merchant and one of the earliest marine zoologists and in 1785 and -92 he published a few articles about polyps, fishes and crustaceans. He had built a special laboratory in his villa in Posillipo. In 1813 "Abhandlungen über die Pflanzenthiere des Mittelmeeres" poshumously arrived [Cavolinia Abildgaard, 1791, Tanais cavolinii (Milne Edwards, in Audouin & Milne Edwards,1840), Sacculina cavolinii Kossmann, 1872, Eunicella cavolinii (Koch, 1887), Calmella cavolinii Vérany, 1846].

Lacking information about Cavooren in the tanaid name Hemikalliapseudes cavooreni Bacescu & Absalo, 1985.

Thericium cazioti F. Nordsieck, 1974 is honouring the French conchologist Le Commandant Eugène Caziot, 1844-1931.

Favartia cecalupoi Bozzetti, 1993 is named for Alberto Cecalupo, 19??-, well know amateur malacologist from Milano, Italy.

Lacking information about Cecil in the bryozoan name Arthropoma cecilii (Audouin, 1826).

The polychaete name Salmacina ceciliae Nogueira & ten Hove, 2000 named after Dr. Antonia Cecilia Zacagnini Amaral, 19??-, Brazil polychaetologist. (... according to kind information from Dr. ten Hove).

Cecilia in the scaphopod name Compressidentalium ceciliae Scarabino, 1995 : (see Scarabino).

Lacking information about Cecil(a) in the harpacticoid name Pontostratiotes cecilae Dinet, 1978.

Who is Cecilia in the rotiferan name sselet Rousselet, 1902?

Lacking information about Cecille in the bivalve name Modiolus cecillei R. A. Philippi, 1847.

Baron Gustav Carl Ulrik Cederström, 1806-1898, instructor of fisheries and fish culture of the Swedish state, is honoured in the cladoceran name Bythotrephes cederstroemi Scoedler, 1867, because he i.a. also collected crustaceans.

Dr. Tomas Cedhagen, 1954-, Swedish zoologist, who in his youth was herpetologically interested, but from university level primarily has worked on marine fauna and achieved his PhD on foraminiferans. He worked for several years during the 1980s and early -90s at TMBL (Tjärnö Marine Biol. Lab.), but became employed by the Univ. of Aarhus, Denmark in 1995, where he so far has stayed.

The gastropod names Conus cedonulli C. Linnaeus, 1767 and Cochlespira cedonulli (Reeve, 1843) are likely not named for a person, but likely derived from the Greek word kedos = care, concern, anxiety (or = near by marriage) and the Latin word nullus = nothing, nobody.

The trematode Iquitos ceii Mañé-Garzón & Gil, 1963 is named for the Italian-Argentinean Prof. Dr. José Miguel Alfredo Maria Cei, (San Miniato, Pisa) 1918-2007 (8 Jan.), who has been working on South American amphibians. (Prof. Albina Gaevskaya, Sevastopol, kindly provided this information)

Who is Celia in the polychaete name Grubeosyllis celiae Parapar & San Martin, 1992? Possibly a tribute to Dr. Celia Olabarria Uzquiano, 19??-, malacologist at Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, who defended her thesis in 1996 after having first finished her B.Sc. in 1990.

Lacking information about Celine in the diatom name Navicula celinei Witkowski, Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot in Metzeltin & Witkowski, 1996.

Ricardo Zariquiey-Cenarro, (3 Apr. - Caparroso, Navarra) 1870-1943 (8 Sep. - Barcelona), is honoured in the decapod name Galathea cenarroi Zariquiey-Alvarez, 1968. Likely he may have been the father of R. Zariquiey-Alvarez (q.v.).

Lacking information about Cepas in the gastropod name Conus cepasi Trovao, 1975 - if at all a person's name? - Perhaps only "ce pas"?.

Bernard Germain Etienne de La ville sur Illon, le comte de La Cépède, (26 Dec. - Agen) 1756-1825 (6 Oct.), French naturalist; a disciple of Buffon, working at the Natural History Museum in Paris.

Casimir Cépède, (Cannes) 1882-1954 (23 Dec. - Paris), French protistologist. (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly provided the dates).

Lacking information about Cerbussow in the triclade genus name Cerbussowia Wilhelmi, 1909.

Dr. Marie Paul Antoine Cerfontaine, 1864-1917, Liege zoologist and embryologist, who worked during some periods at the Marine statons in Neapel and Messina, the later destroyed by an earthquake in 1908.

Dr. Walter Olivier Cernohorsky, (30 June - Brno, Czechoslovakia) 1927-, has studied architecture, 1948 after the communist putsch in Czecholowakia flight to Germany and Italy, was animated to study Mollusca by Prof. Franz Alfred Schilder (Halle an der Saale), 1949 emigration to Australia, here 2 years "forced labour" for the Australian government, then working in gold mining industry in Australia and Fiji, major malacological publications from 1965 onwards, 1968-69 senior postdoctoral research associateship in Evolutionary and Systematic Biology with the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C., from 1969 to 1989 section leader & curator of Mollusca at the Auckland Institute & Museum, New Zealand; since his retirement working in heraldry and genealogy of aristocracy, 1999 investiture as Knight Commander of the Polish order St. Stanislaw. Living in Pakuranga, Auckland 1706, N.Z. Present (2002) nationality: New Zealand. W. O. Cernohorsky is considered to be the world's leading authority on the Mitridae and Costellariidae, but has also contributed major publications on the Volutomitridae, Terebridae and Nassariidae. His main interest has been Indo-Pacific mollusks and he has published the following books:1967. Marine Shells of the Pacific. 248 pp., 60 plates, 1972. Marine Shells of the Pacific, vol. 2. 411 pp., 68 plates and 1978. Tropical Pacific Marine Shells. 352 pp., 68 plates. Several species were named in his honour: Hastula cernohorskyi Burch, 1965, Ziba cernohorskyi Rehder & Wilson, 1975, Vexillum (Costellaria) cernohorskyi Ladd, 1977, Conus cernohorskyi Da Motta, 1983, Cyllene cernohorskyi Fernandes & Rolan, 1992. (Dr. Hans Turner, Casa La Conchiglia, Rovia, Switzerland, kindly provided all this information).

Lev Vladimirovich Cernosvitov, 1902-1945, Czechoslovakian oligochaete researcher [Cernosvitoviella Nielsen & Christensen, 1959].

Attilio Cerruti, (17 Oct. - Picerno) 1878-1956 (12 Aug. - Taranto), Italian zoologist (polychaete taxonomist) [Aricidea cerrutii Laubier, 1967, Cerbussowia cerruti Wilhelmi, 1909]. The Nicaraguan gastropod Conus cerruttii Cargile, 1997 is likely honouring another person, but who?

Likely the Italian palaeomalacologist Serafino Cerulli-Irelli, 1873-1946, is honoured in the gastropod name Eulimella cerullii Cossmann, 1916. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided this information).

The shark name Scyliorhinus cervigoni Maurin and Bonnet, 1970, the ray name Rja cervigoni Bigelow & Schroeder, 1964 as well as the Sparidae name Calamus cervigoni Randall & Caldwell, 1966 and the Sciaenida name Stellifer cervigoni Wintersteen, 1971, must all be in honour of the Venezuelan ichthyologist Fernando Cervigón 1930-,.

Lacking information about A.? Cerviño in the gastropod name Onchidoris cervinoi Ortea & Urgorri, 1979.

Andrea Cesalpini, (6 June - Arezzo) 1519-1603 (23 Feb. - Pisa), Italian collector of natural history objects, whose herbarium is still preserved at Florence.

Lacking information about Cesare in the copepod name Laophonte cesareae Por, 1964.

Paolo Cesari, (25 Feb. - Venezia) 1929-1993 (Venezia), Italian malacologist.

Pierre Rebière, Comte de Cessac, (15 Aug. - Guéret) 1821-1889 (10 May), French Malacologist.

Dogan Çeviker, 19??-, Istanbul, provided the type material (and helpful information about Turkish muricids) regarding Muricopsis cevikeri Houart, 2001.

The French naturalist (herpetologist, ichthyologist) Paul Chabanaud, (30 Nov. - Versailles) 1876-1959 (27 Feb. - Paris), is honoured in the acanthocephalan name Paracanthocephaloides chabanaudi (Dollfus, 1951). [Valérie Chansigaud kindly provided the date of decease].

Prof. Dr. Alain Gabriel Chabaud, (L'Aigle, France) 1923-, is honoured in the flatworm names Diplectanum chabaudi Oliver, 1980 and Paramonostomum chabaudi von Strydonck, 1965 [Sphaerocephalum chabaudi Inglis, 1962, Ligophorus chabaudi Euzet & Suriano, 1977], now retired, was the leading French scientist in Nematodes. He achieved a MD in 1947 in Prof. Brumpt's (q.v.) laboratory and became Docteur ès Sciences in 1954. He learned about helminths from i.a. Brumpt, C. Desportes, R. Dollfus (q.v.) and G. Blanc. In 1960 he got a personal professor's chair "Zoologie des Vers" at the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. There are a lot of species named chabaudi, but only a few of them are marine parasite, many must concern parasites of terrestrial animals. (Prof. Jean-Lou Justine, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, kindly provided this information and supplied an offprint from Systematic Parasitology 20: 237-238 regarding a biographical profile of Chabaud).

André Jean Christophe, comte de Chabrol de Crousol, (14 Nov. - Riom) 1771-1836, is likely the person honoured in the octocoral name Nephthea chabrolii Audouin, because he was a correspondent of Audouin and other naturalists.

Dr. Fenner Albert Chace, Jr., (5 Oct. - Fall River, Mass.) 1908-2004 (30 May), U.S. crustaceologist at the Smithsonian Institution, kept functioning as emeritus curator after his formal retirement in 1978. [Pasiphaea chacei Yaldwyn, 1962, Fennera Holthuis, 1951 chacei Holthuis, 1951, Fenneropenaeus Perez Farfante, 1969, Ifanella chacei Vervoort, 1964, Hymenopenaeus chacei Crosnier & Forest, 1969, Scyllarus chacei Holthuis, 1960, Fenneralpheus chacei Felder & Manning, 1986, Archaeatya chacei Villalobos, 1960, Vetericaris chaceorum Kensley & Williams, 1986, Ischnochiton chaceorum P. Kaas & R. A. Van Belle, 1990, Chorocaris chacei (Williams & Rona, 1986), Pasiphaea chacei Yaldwin, 19??, Michelopagurus chacei McLaughlin, 1997, Dicranodromia chacei Guinot, 1995, Pylocheles (Bathycheles) chacei Forest, 1987, Chacella A.J. Bruce, 1986, Crassispira chacei Hertlein & Strong, 1951, Plesionika chacei Crosnier, 1986, Alpheus fenneri A.J. Bruce, 1994]. His wife Janice D. Chace is remembered in the genera Janicella Chace, 1986 and Janicea Manning & Hart, 1984. (Dr. A.J. Bruce kindly supplied one of the eponyms).

Emery Perkins Chace, (31 July - Warren, Rhode Island) 1882-1980 (15 May - California), US malacologist, who published on molluscs from the Guadalupe Island, is honoured in the polyplacophoran name Mopalia chacei Berry, 1919 and in the bivalve names Neaeromya chacei (Dall, 1916) & Chaceia Turner, 1955. He was Curator of Mollusca at the San Diego Society of Natural History from 1954 to 1967. His wife Elsie Margaret Chace [née Herbst] 1885-1975, was also an interested Malacologist.

Blidingia chadefaudi (Chadefaud,1957) Bliding, 1963 is honouring it's formal descriptor, the Sorbonne professor Marius Chadefaud, (21 Dec.) 1900-1984, who used Feldmann's nomun nudum from 1954, when describing this species. The lichen name Chadefaudia G. Feldmann, 1957 is honouring the same person.

Herbert Clifton Chadwick, 1859?-1932 (16 Sep.) (aged 73 at the time of his death), Curator of the Port Erin Biological Station and publishing about i.a. echinoderms and their planktonic larvae. [Decametra chadwicki A.H. Clark, 1911]

The decapod name Pycnocaris chagoae Bruce, 1972 was described from the Chagos Archipelago, so it is a toponym rather than an eponym.

The pantopod name Nymphon chainae Child, 1982 and in the tunicate name Styela chaini Monniot & Monniot, 1970 are not likely eponymes, but at least the pantopod name (and possibly also the tunicate name) is likely named from one of the R/V Chain cruises. R/V Chain, a navy salvage ship during WWII, was converted and sailed in the WHOI fleet from 1958 to 1975.

Lacking information about Challis in the bivalve name Thracia challisiana Dall, 1915, but possibly a tribute to Miss Bertha Challis, 18??-19??, who according to Kincaid was a graduate student in 1910 when she became interested in studying Thais. She still lived during the beginning of the 1950s.

The sponge name Toxochalina chalmeri Brøndstedt, 1927 is not in honour of a certain person, but was found at Port Chalmers, New Zealand.

The harpacticoid name Tegastes chalmersi Thompson & Scott, 1903 was named for "Dr. A. J. Chalmers, formerly a Liverpool Student of Science, now Registrar and Professor in the Medical College, Colombo." This is probably Albert John Chalmers, (28 Mar.) 1870-1920 (5 Apr. - Calcutta), author of "Manual of Tropical Medicine" (1910 and later editions). (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly provided this information).

Lacking informatiopn about Chalmers in the octocoral name Siphonogorgia chalmersae Verseveldt, 1966, but likely a tribute to the octocoral researcher Dorothy Chalmers, 1???-19??, active during the beginning of the 1930s.

Dr. E.? Chambard, 18??-1???, attaché to Suez Canal works [Chambardia Bourguignat, 1880, Aetheria chambardi Bourguignat, 1881, Planorbula chambardiana Bourguignat, 1878].

Lacking information about Chamberlain in the ostracod name Paradoxostoma chamberlaini Rome, 1939, but possibly it may be a tribute to Frederick Morton Chamberlain, (29 June) 1867-1921 (17 Aug.), who was a naturalist onboard the Albatross during her Philippine expedition and an interested malacologist.

The nudibranch name Nembrotha chamberlaini Gosliner and Behrens 1997 is in honour of Dr. Marc Chamberlain, 19??-, neurologist of San Diego, California, "good friend, fantastic underwater photographer and generous contributor to opistobranch research". (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly porovidede this information).

Prof. Dr. Ralph Vary Chamberlin, (Salt Lake City) 1879-1967 (Salt Lake City) , studied first at Univ. of Utah, PhD in 1904 at Cornell University, He became Prof. of Zoology at Brigham Young University between 1908-11, published in 1919 at the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, a thick 2 volume polychaete work of excellent quality. Later he worked e.g. on millipeds and was Professor of Zoology at the University of Utah between 1925-38, but the last decades of his life he became a historian regarding the past of his home state and university. He married in 1899 but broke up from the marriage after 11 years and 4 children. He was remarried in 1922 and became father of 6 more children. Some of the taxon names he described were derived from the Gosiute language (a dialect of Shoshone) spoken by the native Gosiute people living SW of the Great Salt Lake, e.g. the genus names Sonatsa from soma, so- = many + natsani, natsa = hook and Moyanus from mobi, mo- = snout, proboscis + ya = carry, bear, because during spring 1901, Chamberlin had lived together with this people and studied their plant names, especially regarding their medical use. The gastropod name Triphora chamberlini F. Baker, 1926 was however not named in his honour, but in honour of Mr. Joseph Conrad Chamberlin, (23 Dec. - Salt Lake City) 1898-1962 (17 July - Hillsboro, Oregon), who was Assistant in Entomology during the California Academy of Sciences dredgings in 1921 and in 1929 achieved a PhD at Stanford Univ., becoming a specialist in mainly pseudoscorpions. Ralph was Joseph's uncle and the person who helped Joseph to transfer to the Stanford University from Utah, where he had started his studies after recovering from the Spanish flu. They partly published together on pseudoscorpions.

Adelbert (or Adalbert) von Chamisso, or Louis Charles Adélaïde de Chamisseau de Boncourt, (30 Jan.) 1781-1838 (21 Aug. - Berlin), born at the mansion Boncourt in Champagne, France in an old count family, which emigrated in 1790, ending up in Berlin. Later his family returned home, but Adelbert, beeing adapted to German customs, stayed. At the age of 32, he began studying natural science, particularly botany at the university of Berlin and a few years later he - after having published his allegorical novel about a man without any shadow "Peter Schlemihls wundersame Geschichte" - he got the opportunity to participate as a zoologist in the Russian "Rurik" circumnavigation in 1815-18 together with Eschscholtz (q.v.). After this trip he was appointed as botanist at the botanical garden in Berlin, but shared this duty with writing lyrics, becoming a master in writing ballads and epical terze rime. He was the first to detect alternation between generations within the salps [Eurhamphaea chamissonis (Eschscholts, 1829)].

Merrill Champion, (May - Prince Edward Island, Canada) 1880-1963 (Cambridge, Mass.), North American Malacologist.

The shrimp Pandalus chani Komai, 1999 was collected by Prof. Dr. Tin-Yam Chan, 19??-, NE of Taiwan in a commercial trawler. Chan works at the Imstitute of Marine Biology, National Taiwan Ocean University. [Pilumnus chani Ng & Ho, 2003, Bathyarctus chani Holthuis, 2002, Calocarides chani Kensley, Lin & Yu, 2000, Justitia chani Poupin, 1994, likely Anchisquilla chani Ahyong, 2001]

Dr. Asa Crawford Chandler (19 Feb. - Newark, New Jersey) 1891-1958 (23 Aug. - Rotterdam - by heart attack on his way to a science meeting in Portugal), US Parasitologist, is honoured in the nematode name Metachromadora chandleri (Chitwood, 1951) and in the trematode name Prohemistomum chandleri Vernberg, 1952. (The latest eponym kindly added by Prof. A. Gaevskaya, Sevastopol).

Prof. Jean-Pierre Changeux, (7 Apr. - Domont) 1936-, published on copepods parasitical on echinoderms during the 1950s-60s, when beeing a disciple of Delamare Deboutteville (q.v.) and Monod (q.v.) [Calypsina changeuxi (Stock & Kleeton, 1963)], but early changed his interest into neuroscience.

Maurice Armand Chaper, 1834-1896 (5 July - Wien), French engineer and malacologist.

Lacking information about Chapman in the hydroid name Laodicea chapmani Günther, 1903. Probably not David M. Chapman, Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, who published on medusae muscles in the beginning of the 1950s, but possibly? Henry Cadwalader Chapman, 1845-1909, Philadelphia naturalist, who published "Evolution of life" in Philadelphia in 1873?

Dr. Pierre-Alfred Chappuis, (5 Sep. - St. Cloud (Dept. Seine et Oise)) 1891-1960 (9 July - Bern), French born Swiss zoologist (isopod specialist), working in Klausenburg (also for a while in Romania at the speleological institute (the first in the world of its kind founded in 1920 by Racovitza (q.v.)), but was forced away to France by the communist regime) [Psammotopa chappuisi Noodt, 1955, Bulbamphiascus chappuisi Rouch, 1962, Asellopsis chappuisius Krishnaswamy, 1957, Nitocrella chappuisi Kiefer, 1926, Chappuisius Kiefer, 1938, Hastigerella chappuisi Soyer, 1974, Bogidiella chappuisi Ruffo, 1952].

The gastropod name Clio chaptalii Gray, 1850 may possibly be a tribute to the French chemical author Jean Antoine Claude Chaptal, comte de Chanteloup, (4 June - Saint-Pierre-de-Nogaret, Lozère) 1756-1832 (30 July - Paris), who was a very productive author.

Dr. Jean-Baptiste Étienne Auguste Charcot, (15 July - Neuilly-sur-Seine) 1867-1936 (15-16 Sep. - the sea near Iceland), French physician and explorer, who led the Antarctic expeditions with "Le Français" (1903-05) (the expedition was aimed to go northwards, but Charcot decided to change direction when news about the missing Swedish Antarctic expedition arrived) and "Pourquoi-Pas?" (1908-10). Later he was the leader of several expeditions to East Greenland and the North Atlantic and together with all but one of the 44 men on bord, he succumbed when "Pourquoi-Pas?" went to the bottom off the Icelandic coast during the stormy night of 15 September 1936. He was married to a granddaughter of the novelist Victor Hugo, who did not share his passion for scientific expeditions [Mysella charcoti Lamy, 1906, Buccinum charcoti Lamy, 1910, Calliapagurops charcoti De Saint Laurent, 1973, Staurocladia charcoti (Bedot, 1908), Bougainvillia charcoti Le Danois, 1913, Golfingia charcoti (Hérubel, 1906), Cyclocotyla charcoti (Dollfus, 1922), Epigamia charcoti (Gravier, 1906), Pareledone charcoti (Joubin, 1905), Austrophyllum charcoti (Gravier, 1911), Ripaster charcoti Koehler, Perknaster charcoti (Koehler), Psilaster charcoti (Koehler), Charcotia Vayssière, 1905 (nudibranch genus - and the junior homonym Charcotia Chevreux, 1905 (Lysianassidae)), Charcotia M. Peragallo, 1921 (diatom genus), Adagnesia charcoti Monniot & Monniot, 1973]. (André Trombeta, Brazil, kindly provided the generic names).

Prof. Pierre Chardy, (5 Oct.) 1942-, has i.a. published on abyssal Asselotida in 1975 and is working as director in the Arcachon marine laboratory [Leptanthura chardyi Negoescu, 1992, Sphaerodoropsis chardyi Desbruyères, 1980, Pareugyrioides chardyi Monniot & Monniot, 1977, Ischnomesus chardyi Kussakin, 1988, Benthopecten simplex chardyi Sibuet 1975].

Charleen : (see Schwabe).

Vexillum (Pusia) charlesi H. Turner & P. Callomon, 2001 is named for Mr. Michel Charles, 19??-, (shell dealer in Tananarive, Madagascar) who has collected this species on Mindoro Island, Philippines, and has first brought it as a gift to the attention of the senior author.. (Dr. Hans Turner, Casa La Conchiglia, Rovia, Switzerland, kindly provided this information).

The Cape Verde spily lobster name Palinurus charlestoni Forest & Postel, 1964 is not an eponym, but named after the ship Charleston, from which the authors obtained the type specimen.

The German-Swiss geologist and pioneer glaciologist Jean de Charpentier, (8 Dec. - Freiberg, Saxony, Germany) 1786-1855 (12 Dec. - Bex, Switzerland), was also malacologist.

Mr. Mickmin Charuchinda, 1954-, at Phuket Marine Biological Center, Thailand, is honoured in the polychaete name Magelona mickminni Nateewatana & Hylleberg, 1991.

Fenner A. Chase Jr., 1908-2004, famous carcinologist of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington. [Periclimenes chacei X. Li, A.J. Bruce & R.B. Manning, 2004]

George William Chaster, 1863-1910, of Southport (UK) collector of natural history items, especially North East Atlantic and Mediterranean shells. He spent much of his holiday time during his later years in Ireland, dredging e.g. around Rathlin Island [Pyrgulina chasteriana Melvill, 1910, Glabratella chasteri (Heron-Allen & Earland, 1913)].

Prof. Dr. Édouard Chatton, (11 Oct. - Romont, Switzerland) 1883-1947 (23 Apr. - Banyuls-sur-mer), biologist living most of his life in France; protistologist and ciliate specialist, who in 1925 coined the terms pro- & eukaryotic; he had been a disciple of Prof. Yves Delage (q.v.) and began to work at the Pasteur Institute in Paris under Prof. Mesnil (q.v.), spent some years working in Tunisia under the Nobel laureate to be Charles Nicolle, 1866-1936, . In 1908 he had married Marie Herre (resulting in two children, Pierre & Jeanne), who also became his pupil. After WWI he moved to Strasbourg and in 1932 he homed to Montpellier, where he served as director of the Marine Station at Sète and in 1937 he became a Professor at Sorbonne and director of the Station zoologique de Banyuls. He often published together with Lwoff (q.v.), whom he first met in 1921 and they continued their cooperation until the end of his life [Chattonella Biechler, 1936, Ellobiopsis chattoni Caullery, 1910, Enteropsis chattoni Monniot, 1961, Labyrinthula chattonii P.-A. Dangeard, 1932, Corallomyxa chattoni Grell & Benwitz, 1978, Demoixys chattoni Illg & Dudley, 1961, Pseudomma chattoni Bacescu, 1941, Glaucoma chattoni Corliss, 1971, Hyalophysa chattoni Bradbury, 1966]. (Dr.. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided the last eponym).

Lacking information about Chaumont in the gymnamoeba name Pernina chaumontii Kadiri, Joyon & Pussard, 1992, but likely a tribute to Prof. François Chaumont, 19??-. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

Lacking information about Chautard in the bivalve name Atrina chautardi Nicklès, 1953.

Lacking information about Georges Chauvet in the gastropod name Chauvetia Monterosato, 1884 (according to Nicklés 1950 Chauvet was a "préhistorien français du xixe siècle)".

François Joseph Chauvin, 1797-1859, French algologist.

Commandant René C. Chauvin, 19??-, "premier Directeur du Centre Océanologique de Bretagne", is honoured in the polychaete name Chauvinelia Laubier, 1974.

The harpacticoid name Phyllopodopsyllus chavei Coull, 1970, is in honour of Dr. Keith E. Chave, 1928-, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, who achieved his PhD at Univ. of Chicago in 1952.

The older of the fish name Lampadena chavesi Collett, 1905, the gastropod name Ocenebra chavesi Houart, 1996 and the nemertean name Balaenanemertes chavesi (Joubin, 1906) may likely be in honour of Francisco Alfonso Chaves, 18??-19?? (before 1927), "Director de la parte zoologica del Museo de Ponta Delg'ada en la isla de San Mig'uel, del grupo de las Azores". The gastropod name was described from the Azores, perhaps honouring Sociedade Alfonso Chaves, a society in recognition of his work at the Islands. Also the Chavez Island, detected by Jean Charcot in the Antarctic, is likely, despite the spelling, in honor of this Commandant (Colonel) Alfonso Chaves of Ponta Delgada, Azores.

The nudibranch name Cerberilla chavezi Hermosillo & Valdes, 2007, is in honour of Roberto Chavez, 19??-, who provided assistance during field work and provided dive sites.

The gastropod names Hindsiclava chazaliei (Dautzenberg, 1900) and Antillophos chazaliei (Dautzenberg, 1900) and the bivalve name Pecten chazaliei Dautzenberg, 1900 are named for the yacht "Chazalie", which collected the types, but the yacht may perhaps have been named for a person? In 1887 a yacht by this name was owned by the Danish ambassador to London, likely the same yacht, which later Comte de Dalmas (q.v.) purchased and was used for the expeditions from 1893 & 1894 (to Mediterranean areas) and in 1895-97 to the western Atlantic.

Aphelodoris cheesemani Eliot, 1907 is named for Thomas Frederic Cheeseman, (8 June - Hull, Yorkshire, England) 1845-1923 (15 Oct. - Remuera, Auckland), New Zealand, student in opisthobranchs. His family had emigrated to Auckland, New Zealand, arriving there in Apr. 1854. From the beginning he was most interested in botany and corresponded with i.a. Hooker (q.v.) and botany continued to be his main interst, but being a curator at tha Auckland Museum from 1874 on, he also collected animals and when younger he often arrived at his working place by horse (and also undertook collecting tours on horseback) [Paratrophon cheesemani F. W. Hutton, 1882].

Dr. Alan Herbert Cheetham, (New Mexico) 193?-, PhD at Columbia Univ. in 1959, palaeontologist at the Smithsonian Institution, interested in bryozoans [Ahcheethamia Gordon & Braga, 1994].

Prof. Eugene M. Cheissin, 1907-1968, Russian protozoologist taught in St. Petersburg by Schewiakoff (q.v.).

Prof. Renato Chemello, 1955-, malacologist from Palermo. Professor of Dipartimento Biologia Animale University of Palermo. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly provided this information and this photo).

The red algal name Acrochaetium cheminii Feldmann, 1954, must be a tribute to the French botanist Émile Chemin, 1876-1945.

Johann Hieronimus Chemnitz, (10 Oct. - Magdeburg) 1730-1800 (18 Sep. - København), German-Danish clergyman (had studied in Halle) and conchologist. From 1757 to 1768 he wotrked as Danish preacher in Wien, then for a short while in Rendsburg, but from 1769 he worked as military preacher in Hesingø and from 1771 in Copenhagen [Chemnitzia d'Orbigny, 1839, Notacanthus chemnitzii Bloch, 1788, Natica chemnitzii Pfeiffer, 1840, Anadara chemnitzii (Philippi, 1851), Periglypta chemnitzii Hanley, 1844].

Lacking information about Chen in the hagfish name Parramyxine cheni (Shen & Tao, 1975).

Prof. Dr. C. Cheng, (Soochow, China) 1911-, worked during 9 years in England supervised by A.C. Hardy (q.v.), achieving his PhD at the Aberdeen Univ. in 1944, but returned in 1947 to China, where he continued research on planktonic copepods and cladocerans.

Lanna Cheng, (27 Apr. - Singapore) 1941-, marine insect researcher at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, the partner of Dr. Ralph Lewin (q.v.).

Jean-Charles Chenu, (30 Aug. - Metz) 1808-1879 (12 Nov. - l'hôtel des invalides, Paris), French biologist, renowned mainly for the works "Illustrations Conchyliologiques" and "Encyclopédie d'Histoire Naturelle"; succeded Kiener (q.v.) i Lyon [Pharus chenui Von Cosel, 1993, Gregariella chenui Rècluz, 1842, Seila chenui Jay & Drivas, 2002].

Gustave Cherbonnier, 1909 or 1911?-95 (late October), French echinodermatologist at the Paris Museum [Cherbonniera Sibuet, 1974, Paracyclocotyla cherbonnieri Dollfus, 1970, Conocrinus cherbonnieri Roux, 1976, Amphiura cherbonnieri Guille, 1972, Thyone cherbonnieri Reys, 1960, Asterodiscides cherbonnieri Rowe, 1985, Isoconcha (Benthoquetia) cherbonnieri Poutiers, 1981, Sarcophyton cherbonnieri Tixier-Durivault, 1958]. He published until 1988. An obituary has appeared: Guille, A. 1998. Memorial: Gustave Cherbonnier. xxix-xxx, illustr. In: Mooi, Rich, and Telford, Malcolm (Eds). Echinoderms: San Francisco. Proceedings of the ninth International Echinoderm Conference, San Francisco, California, USA, 5-9 August 1996. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam & Brookfield: 1-xxx11, 1-923 (Dr. Sabine Stöhr, SMNH, Stockholm, kindly provided the dates).

Chernyavkii : (see Czerniavsky).

Valentina M. Chernysheva, 1932-, mother of the author, is honoured in the nemertean name Oerstediella valentinae Chernyshev, 1993. (The author of this name, Dr. Alexei Victorovich Chernyshev, Vladivostok, kindly provided this information).

Prof. Anthony Cheshire, 19??-, South Australian Research and Development Institute, is honoured in the medusa name Amphinema cheshirei Gershwin & Zeidler, 2003.

The gastropod name Rissoina chesnelii (Michaud, 1830), may possibly be a tribute to the French marquis Louis Pierre François Adolphe Chesnel de la Charbouclais, 1791-1862, who was interested in and published about roses.

Noetiella chesneyi Oliver & Chesney, 1994 was named for the Irish explorer General Francis Rawdon Chesney, (16 Mar. - Annalong, County Down, Ireland) 1789-1872 (30 Jan.), who navigated the Euphrate river in 1835-1837.

Miss Catherine Pui Shan Cheung, 19??-, Dep. of Zoology, Univ. of Hong Kong, is honoured in the Hong Kong actinian name Spheractis cheungae England K.W., 1992.

Dr. Jean Baptiste Auguste Chevalier, (23 June - Domfront) 1873-1956 (3 June - Paris), naturalist/botanist from Normandy. The Paris museum sent him as part of a zoological mission to the biologically interesting Casamance region of Senegal. Chevalier later was interested in applied botany in the French colonies. He earned a doctorate from the University of Lille in 1901. The caridean name Caridinopsis chevalieri Bouvier, 1912 is a tribute to him. (Dr. David Damkaer, Seattle, kindly provided all this information).

The gastropod (Iravadiidae) genus Chevallieria Cossmann, 1888, may possibly be a tribute to Dr. François Fulgis Chevallier, (2 July - Paris) 1776-1840, French physician and botanist, but more likely to another person. (Dr. Bert Hoeksema kindly sent a reprint involving this genus name).

Jean Pierre Chevalier, (14 Nov. - Paris) 1926-1981 (26 Apr. - Paris), French scleractinian worker, who began publishing during the late 1950s [Leptopsammia chevalieri Zibrowius, 1980].

The scaphopod name Dentalium cheverti Sharp & Pilsbry in Pilsbry & Sharp, 1897 is not named for a person, but for the ship Chevert. The Chevert expedition to New Guinea was the first Australian scientific mission to a foreign country. Funded and organised by William John Macleay in 1875, the expedition aimed to collect and document the natural environment of New Guinea. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly provided this information).

Édouard-L. Chevreux, 1846-1931, French amphipod specialist, who used his yacht "la Mélita" for marine research in the Canaries and Senegal area in 1890 [Neobrachiella chevreuxii (van Beneden,1891), Pagurus chevreuxi (Bouvier,1896), Chevreuxius Bonnier, 1896, Gammarus chevreuxi Sexton, 1913, Parasinelobus chevreuxi (Dollfus, 1898), Agaue chevreuxi (Trouessart, 1889), Elasmopoides chevreuxi Stebbing, 1908, Chevreuxiella Stephensen, 1915, Agaue chevreuxi (Trouessart, 1889), Abyssorchomene chevreuxi (Stebbing, 1906), Normanion chevreuxi Diviracco & Vader, 1988, Phymorhynchus chevreuxi Dautzenberg & H. Fischer, 1897, Cylichna chevreuxi Dautzenberg, 1889, Venus chevreuxi Dautzenberg, 1891, Stenothoe eduardi Krapp Schickel, 1975]. (Prof. Wim Vader, Tromsø, kindly provided the correct connection between name and honouree in the last name).

The gastropod name Lora chiachiana Dall, 1919 is likely not named for a person, but for Chiachi Point in the Whale Island, Alaska or the Chiachi Island, Alaska..(Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly provided this information).

Chiaje : (see Delle Chiaje).

Chu-Shan Chiang, 19??-, from Taiwan, is honoured in the gastropod name Conus chiangi Azuma, 1972. His wife, Mrs. Chiang is honoured in the cowry name Zoila perlae Lopez & Chiang, 1975. (Dr. Eugene V. Coan, California, kindly provided country and full name).

The cowry name Pustularia chiapponii Lorenz, 1999 is in honour of Dr. Marco Chiapponi, 19??-, Italian shell collector from Lecco.

Dr. Takuo Chiba, (10 Feb. - Tohuku District, Honshu) 1911-1993 (7 Oct.), Japanese copepod worker and "HAIKU" poet, who achieved his PhD at the Hokkaido Imperial Univ. in 1937. (Dr. David Damkaer kindly provided the date of Dr. Chiba's death, and is mentioning that Dr. Chiba was a very nice person).

Stefano Chiarelli, 19??-, Italian malacologist, is honoured in the gastropod name Crisilla chiarellii Cecalupo & Quadri, 1995.

Stefano Chiereghini, 1745-1820 (4 Sep.), Italian abbot in Chioggia, who studied marine fauna in the Gulf of Venice [Apherusa chiereghinii Giordani-Soika, 1950, Caninoa chiereghini Nardo, 1841].

Lt. (later on Captain) Gaetano Chierchia, 1850-1922. Anton Dohrn (q.v.) had the idea to enlist the Italian Navy in the popular national oceanographic quests of the time, even suggesting that the Navy send an officer to the Naples Station to learn about sampling and preserving, etc. The first such officer was Gaetano Chierchia, who went to the Naples station in 1881. Later, Chierchia accompanied the corvette "Vettor Pisani" 1882-85 on its world cruise and collected most of the material brought back by this ship. Giesbrecht named genus Gaetanus for him, and there are many "chierchiae" copepod species [Centropages chierchiae Giesbrecht, 1889, Spadella gaetanoi Alvariño, 1978, Desmonema chierchianum Vanhöffen, 1888, Euconchoecia chierchiae G.W. Müller, 1890, Haloptilus chierchiae (Giesbrecht, 1889), Octopus chierchiae Jatta, 1889, Notoplana chierchiae (Plehn, 1896), Zoanthus chierchiae Heider, 1895, Siriella chierchiae  Coifmann, 1937], even Claus getting into the act. Chierchia was awarded a Prussian Gold Crown Medal in 1886, for his efforts. The Italian Naval Ministry continued to pay for a "table" at Naples, but if there was ever another pay-off like that one is unknown to Dr. D. Damkaer, who kindly provided all this information.

Prof. Dr. Charles Manning Child, (2 Feb.) 1869-1954 (19 Dec.), U.S. zoophysiologist and turbellarian researcher from Connecticut, working during his professional years in Chicago, but after retirement in 1934 he moved to Palo Alto, where he became associated with Stanford University. During his early years he primarily was interested in invertebrate regeneration and worked particularly with cnidarians and turbellarians [Childia Graff, 1911]. The namesake Dr. C. Allan Child, 19??-, Smithsonian Institution, is interested in pantopods.

Children : (see Leach).

Dr. James J. Childress (17 Nov. - Kokomo, Indiana) 1942-, Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1968. Deep-sea biologist, ecological physiologist and vegetarian, working at the Marine Science Institute, Univ. of California at Santa Barbara has studied midwater organisms off the Californian coast and is in part responsible for the discovery of the jellyfish Vampyrocrossota childressi Thuesen, 1992. In addition to this jellyfish, there are two deep-sea crustaceans and a deep-sea mussel named in honor of Childress. These are Ephyrina childressi Chace 1986, a deep sea pelagic caridean shrimp from the Halmahera Sea, Indonesia. Childress was chief scientist of the Alpha Helix Southeast Asian Expedition in 1975 and collected the specimens which he gave to Chace. Gnathophausia childressi Casanova 1996, is a mysid from deep near-bottom waters off California discovered by Childress. The "methane mussel" Bathymodiolis childressi Gustafson, Turner, Lutz, & Vrijenhoek 1998 from hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico was discovered by Childress (see Childress, et al., 1986. A methanotrophic marine molluscan symbiosis: mussels fueled by gas. Science, Vol. 233, pp. 1306-1308). Note that it took 12 years from the time this mussel was discovered until it was described and named even though there were over 20 papers on its ecology, physiology and biochemistry by that time: an example of the terrible state of funding for marine taxonomists! (Dr. Erik V. Thuesen, Olympia, Washington, kindly provided this information).

Lacking information about Chilton in the nematode name Oncholaimus chiltoni Ditlevsen, 1930. Likely it may be Dr. Charles Chilton, (27 Sep. - Leominster, Hereford, England) 1860-1929 (25 Oct. (pneumonia)), physician (ophthalmiologist) working in Britain and New Zealand, who published on crustaceans, especially peracaridans. He achieved his Dr. of Science title in New Zealand in 1893, then went to Edinburgh for medical studies, but returned to New Zealand in 1901, living in Christchurch and soon (1903) succeded Dendy as professor of Biology at Canterbury College, when Dendy left for a professorship in King's College, London. Chilton had amputated the left leg already as a child, because of a hip problem, but managed very well to walk and climb rapidly in almost every kind of terrain. [Ceradocoides chiltoni Nicholls, 1934, Exoediceropsis chiltoni Schellenberg, 1931, Excirolana chiltoni (Richardson, 1905)].

Mitsuo Chino, 19??-, Shell collector from Tokyo, published several papers on Indo-Pacific Mollusca.  [Calliostoma chinoi  Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006, Vexillum chinoi Poppe, 2008]. (G. Poppe kindly provided this information).

Chinook in the gastropod name Odostomia chinooki Bartsch, 1927 may possibly not be a tribute to a certain person, but to the "indian" tribe bearing this name?

Dr. Leslie Aubergine Chisholm, 19??-, helminthologist working on monogeneans in Adelaide, is honoured in the cestodan names Echinobothrium chisholmae Jones & Beveridge, 2001 and Acanthobothrium chisholmae Campbell & Beveridge, 2002. She studied at the Univ. of Guelph, Canada, but continued to Brisbane in 1995, where she achieved her PhD in 1997 and moved to Adelaide in 2001.

Lacking information about Chitty in the bivalve name Corbula chittyana C.B. Adams 1852. Possibly - but not likely - the author of the "Tamil Plutarch" Simon Casie Chitty, (27 Mar.) 1807-1860 (5 Nov.), working in Ceylon, be the honoured person? More likely it may be the UK malacologist Edward Chitty, 1804-1863 (28 Sep, - Walham Green), British barrister and legal reporter, who subsequently (from 1840) lived in and published from Jamaica, but returned after many years to Britain. He was also interested in fly fishing and published a book on this item in 1841 under the pseudonym Theophilus South.

Benjamin Goodwin Robinson Chitwood, (21 Dec. - Chicago) 1906-1972 (19 Nov. - Marquette, Michigan), one U.S. nematodologist with this family name. The other is May Belle Hutson Chitwood, (17 Sep. - Lubbock, Texas) 1909-1994 (18 Sep. - Nichols, IO), the wife of the B.G. from Apr. 16 1927 until the 1940s (when they divorced), publishing together. They got one daughter ane one son. [Chitwoodia Gerlach,1956, Ceramonema chitwoodi de Coninck, 1942].

The polyplacophoran name Ischnochiton chiversi Ferreira, 1981 may possibly be a tribute to Dustin D. Chivers, 1935-1995, collection manager in IZ at the California Academy of Sciences. (Dr. Eugene V. Coan. California, kindly provided some of this information).

The gastropod name Conus textile cholmondeleyi J. C. Melvill, 1900 is named for the UK malacologist Reginald Cholmondeley, (20 Apr.) 1826-1896 (10 Feb.), of Condover Hall, Shropshire (taken over after his brother Thomas' death in 1864), an eccentric friend of Mark Twain, who loved and collected birds of paradise, but became a confirmed invalid after 1884.

The diatom names Navicula cholnokyana Foged, 1975 and Protokeelia cholnokyana (Giffen, 1963) Round & Basson, 1995 must honour the algologists Béla Jenö Cholnoky, (Budapest) 1899-1972, who lived in Pretoria, South Africa, from 1952 onwards and his wife Käthe / Kätche Cholnoky-Pfannkuche, 19??- (still alive in year 2000),

Lacking information about Dr. B.N. Chopra , 189?-19??, of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, in the stomatopod name Gonodactylellus choprai (Manning 1967).

Miss A.A. Choslen, 1???-, Hemet, California, who in 1956 purchased specimens of Vexillum choslenae Cernohorsky, 1982 from the Teramachi collection.

The diatom name Fogedia christensenii Witkowski, Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot in Witkowski, Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & Bafana, 1997 must be a tribute to the Danish algae researcher Prof. Tyge Ahrengot Christensen, (Nykøbing) 1918-1996.

Joseph Marie Jean Christiaens, 19??-, Belgian malacologist, who i.a. has made a revision of the genus Patella at the museum in Paris, is honoured in the polyplacophoran name Lepidozona christiaensi R. A. Van Belle, 1982 and in the gastropod names Emarginula christiaensi Piani, 1985 and Joculator christiaensi Jay & Drivas, 2002.

Prof. Em. Marit Ellen Christiansen (neé Hammerstad), 1926-, Norwegian decapod researcher at the Zoological Museum, Oslo, is the person honoured in the crab name Chaceon maritae (Manning & Holthuis, 1981). Her husband Dr. Bengt O. Christiansen, 1924-2003 (Aug.), was also a zoologist, working on hydroids and foraminiferans (Dr. T. Brattegard kindly provided the dates).

Wilhelm Frimann Koren Brodtkorp Christie, (7 Dec. - Kristiansund) 1778-1849 (10 Oct. - Bergen), Norwegian legal expert (father of the countrys constitution) and politician, who with strong interests in cultural history and archaeology took part in the foundation of the Bergen Museum in 1825. He was of Scottish ancestry and grew up in his home town, but was sent to Bergen at age 11 to go to schools.. [Halipteris christii (Koren & Danielssen, 1848)].

Graeme Christie, (31 July) 1956-, now at the Museum of Natural Science, Western Australian Museum, Perth, is honoured in the polychaete name Chaetozone christiei Chambers, 2000 "in recognition of the research conducted by Christie on the reproductive biology of three populations of 'Chaetozone setosa' along the Northumberland coast".

Who is Christine in the harpacticoid name Paradanielssenia christineae Gee & Huys, 1994?

Christopher : (see Mah).

René Chudeau, 1864-1921, French geologist who took part in expeditions in the Mauretania area on camelback.

Karl Chun, (1 Oct. - Höchst (today Frankfurt am Main)) 1852-1914 (11 Apr. - Leipzig), German professor of zoology in various places, i.a. Königsberg, eventually in Leipzig from 1892, where he had been a disciple of Leuckart. He collected particularly from the Zoological Station in Naples and was a specialist on cephalopods and ctenophorans; he also was the leader of the German deep sea expedition in 1898-99 with R/V "Valdivia", a converted passenger liner [Balaenanemertes chuni Bürger, 1909, Chunopleura Lohmann, 1914, Chunomysis Holt & Tattersall, 1905, Chunianna, Chunella Kükenthal, 1902, Chuniella Brinkmann, 1917, Styracaster chuni Ludwig, 1907, Chuniphyes Lens & van Riemsdijk, 1908, Calycopsis chuni Vanhöffen, 1911, Tetraplatia chuni Carlgren, 1909, Flabellum chunii Marenzeller, 1904, Bolinopsis chuni (von Lendenfeld, 1884), Bathyctena chuni (Moser, 1909), Phascoloides chuni (Fischer, 1916), Sulculeolaria chuni (Lens & van Riemsdijk, 1908), Adenopea chuni (Brauner, 1920), Chaceon chuni (Macpherson 1983), Enoploteuthis chunii Ishikawa, 1914, Abraliopsis chuni Nesis, 1982, Chtenopteryx chuni Pfeffer, 1912, Cadulus chuni Jaeckel, 1932, Gigantura chuni Brauer, 1901, Cavernularia chuni Kükenthal & Broch, 1911].

The gastropod name Odostomia churchi A.G. Smith & M. Gordon, 1948 is likely a tribute to the US malacologist Clifford Carl Church, 1899-1989. (Dr. Eugene V. Coan. California, kindly provided some information about Church)

Lacking information about Chusak in the gastropod name Conus chusaki Hwass in Bruguière, 1792.

Lacking information about Dr. Gaetano Ciccarese, 19??-, in the sponge name Higginsia ciccaresei Pansini & Pesce, 1998 in recognition of his vaulable contribution to the biological research in the Zinzulusa Cave.

Mr. Fabio Cicogna, 1925-2004, promoter of precious coral researches and philanthropic supporter of marine science research [Delectona cicogniae Bavestrello, Calcinai & Sarà, 1996]. He was a philanthropic supporter of marine science research. In 1978 he established CLEM (Centro Lubrense di Esplorazioni Marine – Lubrensic Center on Sea Exploration) in Massalubrense (Naples, Italy).

Prof. Leon Semenovitj de Cienkowski (or Cienkowsky), (1 Oct. - Warshaw) 1822-1887 (8 Oct. - Leipzig), Polish protoctist worker, considered to be the introductor of microbiology in Russia, where he worked in St Petersburg and in Odessa, Ukraine [Cienkowskya Schaudinn,1896, Labyrinthula cienkowskii W. Zopf, 1892, Zoothamnium cienkowskii Wrzesniowski, 1877].

Lacking information about Ciro in the polyplacophoran name Acanthochitona ciroi G. Righi, 1971.

Dr. Jean Louis René Antoine Édouard Claparède, (24 Apr. - Chancy, Geneva) 1832-1871 (31 May - Siena, Toscana), Swiss zoologist working in Geneva, although much of his work was done in France and in Italy (chief interests: Annelida, Ciliata, Rhizocephala). He had been a student of Johannes Müller (q.v.) in Berlin and finished his dissertation there in 1857. He stressed the importance of studying living organisms (or at least recently killed) carefully, thus not depositing any museum specimens, demonstrating that much additional information was possible to achieve in this way, and argumenting with de Quatrefage in 1865 regarding new taxa published without access to any material by de Quatrefages. Several of Claparède's drawings of organisms are high-class illustrations. His suffering from tuberculosis caused him to die too young. The Claparède family was originally from Languedoc, but this protestant family moved to Geneva according to Louis XIV:s Edict of Nantes of 1685. [Claparedia de Quatrefages, 1866, Phyllochaetopterus claparedii M'Intosh, 1885, Prosorhochmus claparedii Keferstein, 1862, Cymbasoma claparedi (Giesbrecht, 1892), Sphaerodoridium claparedii (Greeff, 1866), Hyalopomatus claparedii von Marenzeller, 1878, Loxosoma claparedi Bobin & Prenant, 1953, Draconema claparedii (Metschnikoff, 1867), Eleutheria claparedi Hartlaub, 1889, Edwardsia claparedii (Panceri, 1869), Ototyphlonemertes claparedii (du Plessis, 1891), Omalostomum claparedei van Beneden, 1870, Amphileptus claparedei Stein, 1867, Vorticella claparedei Andrussowa, 1886, Leocrates claparedi (Costa), Nicolea claparedi (Grube, 1878)] (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly corrected Claparède's year of decease and where he was born).

The gastropod name Cerodrillia clappi Bartsch & Rehder, 1939 and the bivalve name Teredo clappi P. Bartsch, 1923 must be tributes to the US malacologist William Frederick Clapp, 1880-1951 (Boston), who published on New England mollusks, because Clapp named a Teredo species after Bartsch. Zoologist namesakes are the US pioneer in the aluminium industry, numismatist & malacologist George Hubbard Clapp, (14 Dec. - Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, now a part of Pittsburgh) 1858-1949 (31 Mar. - Sewickley, Pennsylvania), who published in the Nautilus, mainly on non marine molluscs and the US marine biologist Dr. Cornelia Maria Clapp, (17 Mar. - Mantague, Mass.) 1849-1934 (31 Dec.), PhD at Syracuse Univ. in 1889 and one more at the Univ. of Chicago in 1896, later active in the research group of Woods Hole (mainly within ichthyology).

Clarissa in the cowry name Staphylaea limacina clarissa Lorenz, 1989 : (see Clarissa Newman).

Ailsa McGown Clark, 1926 (retired at age 60 in 1986)-, Curator of Echinoderms at the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) since 1948. She has been active also after her retirement. Dr. Gordon L.J. Paterson, Polychaete Research Group, Dept of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, who started his career working with her and kindly supplied some of this information think that Ailsa's lasting legacy would be the revisions and faunistic works she and various other co-workers produced; for example Clark and FWE Rowe 1971 Shallow-water IndoPacific echinoderms, Clark and J Courtman-Stock 1976 Echinoderms of Southern Africa and culminating in Clark and M. E. Downey 1992 Starfishes of the Atlantic. [Aslia Rowe, 1970 (anagram), Ophiothrix ailsae Tommasi, 1970, probably Myriotrochus clarki Gage & Billett, 1986]. She is not related to any of the US echinoderm Clark's, Prof. Dr. Hubert Lyman Clark, (9 Jan. - Amherst) 1870-1947 (31 July - Cambridge, Mass.), at the Mus. of Comp. Zool., Harvard College (he achieved his PhD in 1897, married his wife Frances Lee (née Snell) (who often followed him on travels and made illustrations to his papers) in 1899, was an intensely religious Republican, setting aside Sabbaths for worship, but was also a keen stamp collector, a lover of all sports and considered 'dredging under pleasant conditions on good bottom' superior to everything else; in 1905 he retiered from education and became a Museum fellow, because his hearing had been impaired from an earlier bout of yellow fever) [Odinia clarki Koehler, 1909], or Dr. Austin Hobart Clark, (17 Dec. - Wellesley, Mass.) 1880-1954 (28 Oct. - Waschington, D.C.), curator of the division of echinoderms at USNM, publishing from the 1910s to the 1960s, i.a. "A monogaph of the existing crinoids" completed in 1967 (thus posthumously regarding A.H. Clark) thanks to the continuation of his work by Ailsa Clark. A.H. Clark "scientist, author and gentleman" is honoured in the gastropod name Conus clarki Rehder & Abbott, 1951, in the sea star name Odinia austini Koehler, 1909 and in the scaphopod name Gadila austinclarki (Emerson, 1951). The professor in Geology at the Johns Hopkins University, William Bullock Clark, (15 Dec. - Brattleboro, Vermont) 1860-1917 (27 July (stroke)), with palaeontological interest in the Echinoidea, was not related - at least not closely - to the other US echinoderm Clark's. Comatula mariae Clark, 1907 is named after Mrs. Mary Clark of Boston who assisted H.L. Clark, which must be the first wife of A.H. Clark, who worked at Harvard Univ. until this couple moved to Washington D.C. in 1908. (He had married Mary Wendell Upham, 1881-1931 (Dec.), in March 1906, and got 5 children with her and remarried in 1933 to Leila Gay Forbes). The US west coast palaeo-malacologist Bruce Lawrence Clark, (29 May - Humboldt, Iowa) 1880-1945 (23 Sep. (cancer)), who i.a. was one of the founders of the journal Evolution, is another namesake.

Sticharium clarkae George A. & Springer V.G., 1980 was named for the "shark lady" Dr. Eugenie Clark, (4 May - New York City) 1922-, of University of Maryland, who is an authority on sharks. Possibly also the skate name Dactylobatus clarkii (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1958) was named for the same person, despite the male genitive? (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided some of this information).

Prof. Henry James Clark, (22 June - Easton, Mass.) 1826-1873 (1 July - Amhearst, Mass. (Tabes mesenterica - i.e. a kind of lymp tuberculosis)), US zoologist, well-known for his work on Stauromedusae. He was a disciple of Asa Gray and L. Agassiz (who in 1857 spoke of him enthusiastically as beeing "the most accurate observer in the country"). Clark was the private assistant of the latter for several years. In 1860 he was appointed prof. of Zoology in the Lawrence Scientific School, in 1866 he became professor at the Agricultural College of Pennsylvania, in April 1869 he moved to the Chair of Natural History of the Univ. of Kentucky, staying in Lexington until Feb. 1872, when he was elected Prof. of Veterinary Science in the Massachusetts Agricultural College. He also studied and published on ciliates and sponges and had a life-long love also for herbs. The ctenophore name Beroe clarkii (Agassiz, 1860) (a synonym of Beroe ovata Bruguière, 1789) is likely honouring him. (More)).

Dr. Kerry Bruce Clark, 194?-1999 (10 Jan.), opisthobranch researcher from New England. Professor of biological sciences at Florida Instute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida.

Paul F. Clark, 1948-, at the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) is working on Xanthoidean crabs.

William Clark of Bath, 1788-1869, malacologist and large-scale shell collector (Jeffreys purchased the collection in 1840) [Caecum clarkii Carpenter, 1859, Epilepton clarkiae W. Clark, 1852, Dizoniopsis clarki Forbes & Hanley, 1849]. A later namesake was William Bullock Clark, US Malacologist (see under Ailsa McGown Clark - above).

Which Clark is the copepod name Ustina clarki Illg, 1951 (now Notopterophorides clarki ( Illg, 1951)) honouring?

Lacking information about Clark in the gastropod names Typhis clarki Keen & Campbell, 1964 and Detracia clarki Morrison, 1951. The US malacologist / ichthyologist Clarence Floyd Clark, (26 May - Paulding County, OH) 1912-2002 (26 Mar. - Tempe, AZ), is a possible, but perhaps not very likely alternative. Another mollusk species Dentiscala clarki Olsson & Smith, 1951 was collected by Mr. Walter D. Clark, 1???-, "of Bostick, Florida at Venado, Panama City", so possibly other described species from this time may have been collected by somebody like him?

Which Clark is honoured in the gastropod name Scabrotrophon clarki McLean, 1995?. The US malacologist George R. Clark II, 1938-, is an alternative, as is the US malacologist Prof. Dr. John Wilburn Clark jr., 1943-, Geology Professor at Kansas State Univ., and also the US malacologist Kerry Bruce Clark, (see above).

Miss Betty Betsy Clarke, 19??-, collected specimens of Hastula betsyae Burch, 1965.

The US hydroid specialist Dr. Samuel Fessenden Clarke, (Geneva, Illinois - a suburb of Chicago) 1851-1928, is honoured in the hydroid name Nematophorus clarkei Nutting, 1900. See "Calder, D. R., and L. D. Stephens. 1997. The hydroid research of American naturalist Samuel F. Clarke, 1851-1928. Archives of Natural History 24:19-36" for more information.

Tomicodon clarkei Williams and Tyler, 2003 is named in honor of Raymond D. Clarke, 19??-, Professor of Biology at Sarah Lawrence College, Bronxville, New York, who collected the holotype and only known specimen during his studies of the behavioral ecology of chaenopsid blennies at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. (Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided this information).

The fish name Oneirodes clarkei Swinney & Pietsch, 1988is named for Dr. Malcolm R. Clarke, 1930-, of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.

Louisa Lane Clarke, ca 1812--1883, who lived and died at Guernsey, published "Common Seaweeds of the British Coast".

Lacking information about Peter Clarkson in the bivalve name Spondylus clarksoni Lamprell, 1992.

Prof. Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Claus, (2 Jan. - Kassel) 1835-1899 (18 Jan. - Wien), German zoologist from Göttingen, studied in Marburg and Giessen as a disciple of Leuckart. Later he was professor in Marburg, Würzburg, Göttingen and eventually in Vienna. He was also director of the Austrian marine zoological station in Trieste. He specialized on crustaceans and founded a modern systematics of this group [Clausia Claparède, 1863, Megaclausia O'Reilly, 1995, Pseudoclausia Bocquet & Stock, 1960, Acartia clausii Giesbrecht, 1889, Mecynocera clausii I.C. Thompson, 1888, Heterorhabdus clausii (Giesbrecht, 1889), Lucicutia clausi (Giesbrecht, 1889), Corycaeus clausi F. Dahl, 1894, Eunicicola clausi Kurz, 1877, Gastrodelphys clausii Graeffe,1883, Anomoclausia Gotto, 1964, Astericola clausi Rosoll, 1889, Tegastes clausi G.O. Sars, 1910, Parathalestris clausi (Norman, 1868), Siriella clausii G.O. Sars, 1876, Clausophyes Lens & van Riemsdijk, 1908, Harpacticus clausi A. Scott, 1909, Nausithoe clausi Vanhöffen, 1892, Agalma clausi Bedot, 1888, Chicoreus clausi R. W. Dunker, 1879].

The diatom name Nitzschia clausii Hantzsch may possibly honour the Russian chemist and botanist Karl Ernst Claus, (23 Jan. - Dorpat (now Tartu)) 1796-1865 (24 Mar. - Dorpat), who i.a, discovered and named the element Ruthenium.

Dr. Mireille Peyrot-Clausade, 1943-, Centre d'Océanologie de Marseille, has published on bioerosion on coral reefs in e.g. French Polynesia and in Madagascar [Callochiton clausadeae P. Kaas & R. A. Van Belle, 1985].

Dr. Claus Clausen, around 1928-, Meiofauna researcher in Bergen, Norway, who has published on gastrotrichs, cnidaria (e.g. Halammohydra), polychaetes, etc., but also e.g. on gregarine parasites.

Michael Claydon, 19??-, amateur conchologist from Port Hedland, W Australia, mainly active during the 1980s, when he discovvered several new species from the Scott Reef region [Typhis claydoni R. Houart, 1988, Benthovoluta claydoni Harasewych, 1987, Calliotectum dalli claydoni (Poppe, 1986)]

Lacking information about Clayton in the dinoflagellate name Micracanthodinium claytonii (Holmes) Dodge 1982. Despite the masculine ending of the name, it may possibly be the algologist Deborah Clayton? - but also the entomologist Dr. Dale H. Clayton, 19??-, Salt Lake City, may possibly a suspect person in this context?

Parker Cleaveland, (15 Jan. - Rowley, Massachusetts) 1780-1858 (15 Oct. - Brunswick), US malacologist.

James Dowsett Rose-Clealand (sometimes spelled Cleland), 1767-1852, amateur conchologist from Bangor, Northern Ireland, who in 1823 found the type material of Clelandella clelandi (W. Wood, 1828) (a synonym of Jujubinus (C.) miliaris).

Dr. William James Clench, (24 Oct. - Brooklyn, New York) 1897-1984 (22 Feb.), Curator of Molluscs between 1926-66 at the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, USA. He founded (1941) and edited "Johnsonia" (named for Charles Willison Johnson, (26 Oct. - Morris, New Jersey) 1863-1932 (19 July - Brookline, Mass.), who had been curator of entomology and molluscs at the Boston Society of Nat. Hist. [Caecum johnsoni Winkley, 1908, Cymatosyrinx johnsoni Arnold, 1903, Turbonilla johnsoni Baker, Hanna & Strong, 1928, likely Dentalium johnsoni Emerson, 1952, Solemya johnsoni Dall, 1891, Oliva miniacea johnsoni Higgins, 1919, Teredo johnsoni Clapp, 1924], and had helped Clench and some of his friends in identifying natural history objects when they were young and thus he was a person admired by Clench). Although, Clench himself mainly was interested in freshwater and land molluscs, he also published rather much on marine molluscs and had several well-known students, who worked on marine fauna, e.g. Rehder (q.v.), Tucker Abbott (q.v.), Ruth Turner (q.v.), Rosewater (q.v.), Robert Robertson (q.v.) (and several others) [Callistochiton clenchi E. Ashby & B. C. Cotton, 1934, Brocchinia clenchi R.E. Petit, 1986, Pseudomalaxis clenchi Jaume & Borro, 1946, Neritina clenchi Russell, 1940, Fissurella clenchi Farfante, 1943, Poirieria clenchi (Carcelles, 1953), Clenchina Pilsbry & Olsson, 1953, Glossodoris clenchi (Russell, 1935), Chione clenchi Pulley, 1952, Conus clenchi Martins, 1943]. The gastropod Conus amphiurgus juliae Clench, 1942 is named for his wife, Mrs. Julia Clench, (28 June - Massachusetts) 1899-1969 (Oct. - Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts), "a great contributor to the cause of malacology" according to Abbott [Latiaxis juliae Clench & Aguayo, 1939].

Lacking information about Vladimir Onisimovich Clerc, 18??-19??, in the cestodan name Lateriporus clerci (Johnston, 1912). He mainly published (in French) on Cestoda between 1902-1906.

Carl Alexander Clerck, 1709-1765 (22 July), Swedish entomologist, arachnidologist and assessor in Stockholm, a person from the petty nobility, who i.a. in 1857 published a work on spiders before the publication of the10:th edition of Linnaeus' Systema Nature, named Aranei Suecicae, which is considered too valuable to be disregarded, so it is by ICZN considered to be the nomenclatorial starting point for spiders, although defined as beeing published 1 January 1758, the sama date as Linnaeus' work. Clerck was first married to Anna Maria Starck, who died in 1738, remarried to Anna Margaretha Dahléen, with whom he got a child in 1857, but the child died very soon, so he left no children and having had bad economy all his life, nothing was left, except for his arachnological, entomological and botanical collection (plus a microscope, some other instruments and a small book collection), when this nobleman died.

Dr. J.L. Numa Clermont, 1???-18??, published "Histoire naturelle des Animaux invertèbres" in Paris during the 1830s.

Lacking information about Commander Hanet-Cléry of the French Navy, in the gastropod names Conus clerii L. A. Reeve, 1844. The type specimen was found by this commander off the Brazilian coast and purchased by Hugh Cuming, before if was described and a few other species like Marginella cleryi Petit de la Saussaye, 1836 & Typhis cleryi (S. Petit De La Saussaye, 1840) is honouring the same person. It is unclair who this naval captain was. He had several rather well known family members in France, but they are all a bit too early or late to be this person.

Stefan (Stephan) Clessin, 1833-1911, German malacologist.

Dr. Régis Cleva, 1950-, French crustacean researcher of Italian origin at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, is honoured in the stomatopod name Anchisquillopsis clevai Moosa, 1985, in the shrimp name Cryptopenaeus clevai Crosnier, 1984 and in the shark name Halaelurus clevai Seret, 1987,

Prof. Dr. Per Teodor Cleve, (10 Feb. - Stockholm) 1840-1905 (18 June - Uppsala), the 13:th child in his family. Swedish chemist, PhD in Uppsala in 1863, professor from 1874, active i.a. with hydrography and plankton, especially diatoms. His students called him PtCl4 (he worked i.a. with platinum chemistry and discovered e.g. the elements holmium and thulium). He was a good teacher, but could also be very sarcastic, when needed [Apherusa clevei G.O. Sars, 1904]. His daughter Dr. Astrid Maria Cleve von Euler, (11 Jan. - Uppsala) 1875-1968 (8 Apr. - Västerås), PhD in Uppsala in 1898 (one of the Swedish pioneer female doctors and the first female to become a Jubilee Doctor of Philosophy in 1948), is also well-known as diatom researcher. She had married the chemistry professor Hans von Euler-Chelpin in 1902, nobel laureate in Chemistry in 1929, but they had divorced in 1912. [likely Nitzschia astridiae Aleem, 1973 (described from the vicinity of Göteborg)].

Mr. G. Clifton, 1823-1913, superintendent of the water police in Perth, Australia, had a boat, which Harvey (q.v.) borrowed, when collecting algae in Freemantle.

Smeagol climoi Tillier & Ponder, 1992 was named for Dr. Frank Climo, 1948?-, National Museum of New Zeland. (This generic name is of course named after the figure by that name in Tolkien's Ring epos).

The polyclade name Euplana clippertoni Hyman, 1939 is named for Clipperton Island, so not an eponym, but a toponym.

Prof. Richard Alan Cloney, 1930- (retired in 1995), ascidiologist from the University of Washington, Seattle [Rhopalaea cloneyi Vazquez & Young, 1996]. (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly provided the year of birth).

Lacking information about Closel in the gastropod name Cymatium (Septa) closeli Beu, 1987.

Vice Admiral George Charles Cloué, (20 Aug. - Paris) 1817-1889 (Paris), gouverneur de la Martinique, is honoured in the crab name Ergasticus clouei A. Milne-Edwards, 1882. Also a street in Paris is in honour of him.

The Rev. Charles Clouston, (15 Feb.) 1800-1884, minister of Sandwick and Orcadian naturalist, is honoured in the brown algal name Laminaria cloustoni Edmondst.

Phillip W. Clover, 1934-, US shell dealer in Oakland, California [Lyria cloveriana Weaver, 1963, Conus cloveri Walls, 1978 (has a synonymic name C. soaresi Trovão, 1978 (honouring Guilherme Soares, 19??-, Portuguese shell collector / dealer)), Chicoreus (Triplex) cloveri Houart, 1985, Favartia philcloveri R. Houart, 1984, Marginella cloveri Rios & Matthews, 1972]. The cowry name Lyncina porteri joycae (P. Clover, 1970) is honouring his wife Joyce Clover.

The British biologist and museum curator Joseph Albert Clubb, 1866-1932, is honoured in the Antarctic actinian name Actinostola clubbi Carlgren, 1927. He was Director of Liverpool City Museums between 1911-26. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly provided much of this information).

The US malacologist Dr. Eugene V. Coan, (26 Mar.) 1943-, Palo Alto, California, is interested in the bivalves of the Eastern Pacific [Tellina coani Keen, 1971, Macoma coani Kafanov & Lutaenko, 1999, Choristes coani Marincovich, 1975, Limatula coani (Bernard, 1988), Halistylus genecoani McLean, 1984, Plesiocystiscus genecoani Espinosa & Ortea, 2000].

Dr. Brian W. Coad, 194?-, Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, is an ichthyologist.

Dr. Eugene Victor Coan, 1943-, US west coast malacologist, interested in bivalves and in biographies of colleagues [Macoma (Macoma) coani Kafanov et Lutaenko, 1999, Rochefortia coani Valentich Scott, 1998, Benthobulbus coani (Marincovich 1975), Limatuletta coani Bernard, 1988, Tellina coani Keen, 1971].

An "ancien Conservateur du Musée du Congo à Tervieren", is honoured in the scaphopod name Dentalium coarti Ph. Dautzenberg, 1891. This must almost certainly be the ethnographist Émile Coart, 18??-19??, of the Tervueren Museum off Brussels, active until the first part of the 20:th century.

The harpacticoid name Parathalestris coatsi T. Scott, 1912. The types is from South Georgia, so the name is not derived from the "Andrew Coats" Cruise (1898) to the island Ostrov Kolguyev (between Archangelsk and Novaja Zemlya) using Coats' yacht Blencathra, but the explorer William S. Bruce (q.v.) was on board the Blencathra and became a friend of Coats and later collected the harpacticoid during the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (1902-1904) on the Scotia, so he must have adviced Scott to name it after his friend, the British thread-maker, yachter and malacologist Andrew Coats (of Ayr), 1862-1930. The amphipod name Pseudorchomene coatsi (Chilton, 1912) is named for an Antarctic species and the isopod name Exosphaeroma coatsii Tattersall, 1913 was described from the Malvinas, but as well as the copepod, they may honour the same person. Also the Antarctic holothuroid name Psolicrux coatsi (Vaney, 1908) must likely honour his name. Coats' Land in the Antactic was named by Bruce for his financial backers of his Antarctic expedition, Andrew and his elder brother James Coats, 1841-1912. (Dr. David Damkaer kindly provided the information about the copepod).

Kathy A. Coats, 19??-, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, is interested in polychaetes.

Mr. Dick Cobb, 19??-, of Malacological Society of Australia [Gadila cobbi Lamprell & Healey, 1998]. A partial namesake is the US Ichthyologist John Nathan Cobb, (20 Feb. - Oxford, New Jersey) 1868-1930 (13 Jan. - La Jolla California).

Nathan Augustus Cobb : (see Rudolphi).

Dr. Thomas Spencer Cobbold, (28 May - Ipswich) 1828-1886 (20 Mar. - London), parasitologist; member of the Linnean Society during the last decades of his life.

The decapod name Thorella cobourgi A.J. Bruce, 1982, is likely not honouring a person, but derived from the Cobourg peninsula, Australia.

Gonichthys coccoi Cocco, 1829 is honouring the author, the Sicilian ichthyologist and pharmacologist Anastacio Cocco, (29 Aug. - Messina) 1799-1854 (26 Feb. - Messina) [Microichthys coccoi Rüppell, 1852, Coccotis Jordan, 1882, Coccotropus Bleeker, 1876, Coccotropsis Barnard, 1927, Coccorella Roule, 1929, Coccopeltus Pander, 1856, Coccolus Cocco, 1844, Coccolepis Agassiz, 1843, Coccodus Pictet, 1851].

Prof. Girolamo Cocconi, (6 July - Parma) 1822-1904 (Parma), from Bologna was is a malacologist, although primarily a botanist and mycologist. He wrote for instance the Flora Bolognese, but is also e.g. the author of the species Venerupis senescens. ( Lodewijk van Duuren kindly provided this information).

The nudibranch name Okenia cochimi Gosliner & Bertsch, 2004 is not for a certain person, but named in honor of this now extinct indigenous people (Cochimi) of the Baja California peninsula. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided this information).

The copepod name Scutellidium cockburni (Fairbridge, 1944) was found in Cockburn Sound, named after the British Admiral Sir George Cockburn, 1772-1853, so the name is a toponym, not an eponym.

Lacking information about Cocker in the decapod name Platyxanthus cockeri Rathbun, 1930.

Theodore Dru Alison Cockerell, (22 Aug. - Norwood, England) 1866-1948 (26 Jan. - San Diego), a British-US all around naturalist; he first came to the United States in 1887 to cure a mild case of tuberculosis. He served as Director of the Museum of Jamaica and professor at the New Mexico Agricultural College (now New Mexico State University, Las Cruces). Dr. Cockerell then moved to Boulder, Colorado to stay when his wife was appointed to the teaching staff of Boulder High School. Dr. Cockerell joined the faculty of the University of Colorado in 1904 where he taught entomology and zoology for 42 year. When young, he was an assistant to Alfred Russel Wallace, (8 Jan. - Usk, Gwent) 1823-1913 (7 Nov. - Broadstone), Darwin's primary supporter at the British Museum, and always kept a framed portrait of Wallace in his office at the University of Colorado [Laila cockerelli MacFarland, 1905]. Regarding the nudibranch name Glossodoris porterae (Cockerell, 1902), originally Chromodoris porterae : "Hab.In rocky pools at low tide, La Jolla, Cal., early in August, rather common. (Wilmatte Porter Cockerell.)". Wilmatte Porter Cockerell, 1871-1957, is his wife since 1900 - his first wife Annie (they had married in 1891) died sorrily at young age after just a few yers, as did their two common children. His second wife is also honoured in the nudibranch name Mexichromis porterae (Cockerell, 1901) and in the succulent plant name Wilmattea, Britton & Rose "in recognition of her many discoveries of rare plants and animals in Central America" (Dr. Gary McDonald, Santa Cruz, California kindly provided the information about Glossodoris porterae and Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided the information abut Cockerell's moves in USA).

Dr. William Pennington Cocks, (Devon) 1791-1878, British surgeon and naturalist, working in the Falmouth region, distributing much of his collections to colleagues [Cenia cocksi Alder & Hancock, 1855, Phanoderma (Phanoderma) cocksi Bastian, 1869, Candelabrum cocksii (Vigurs, 1849)].

Dr. John Cocks, 1787-1861, Devonport, published in 1853 "The Sea-Weed Collector's Guide: Containing Plain Instructions for Collecting and Preserving, and a list of All the Known Species and Localities in Great Britain".

Lacking information about Cod in the red algal names Ceramium codii (H. Richards) Feldmann-Mazoyer, 1938 and Acrochaetium codii (Crouan frat.) G. Hamel, 1927.

The Roumanian biologist Prof. Radu Codreanu, (4 Sep. - Tulcea) 1904-1987 (11 Feb. - Bucarest), prof. at Bucarest Univ., is honoured in the isopod name Cabirops codreanui Bourdon, 1966 and in the tanaid name Calozodion codreanui Gutu, 1996.

Prof. Wesley Roswell Coe, (11 Nov. - Middlefield, Connecticut) 1869-1960 (29 Nov. - Chula Vista, Cal.), U.S. nemertean worker, active first at Yale, then at Scripps in California (see also his sister-in-law Katherine Bush) [Carinina coei Hylbom, 1957, Micrura coei Gibson, 1995, Carcinonemertes coei Humes, 1942, Crepidula coei Berry, 1950].

Dr. Petrônio Alves Coelho, 19??-, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, is likely the person honoured in the Brazilian mysid name Mysidopsis coelhoi  Bacescu, 1968. At least the crab name Pilumnoides coelhoi Guinot & Macpherson, 1987, is in his honour.

The octocoral name Leptogorgia cofrini Breedy & Guzman, 2005 is in honour of Dr. David Austin Cofrin, (10 Nov. - Green Bay, Wisconsin) 1923-2009 (11 Aug. - Gainesville, Florida), a Florida physician (urological oncology), philanthropist and visionary science-enthusiast, who has contributed to the advancement of research in biology. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided this information).

Prof. Luigi Cognetti de Martiis, 18??-1930, Italian oligochaetologist at the Torino Museum publishing between 1902-26 [Cognettia Nielsen & Christensen, 1959].

Mrs. Iris Cohen, 1925-, South African (Fish Hoek) shell collector, who discovered the first specimens of Cypraeovula cohenae (Burgess, 1965), which likely may be a hybrid form between C. fuscodentata (Gray, 1825) and C. edentula (Gray, 1825). (Her grandson Greg Cohen, Sydney, Australia, kindly provided the year of birth).

Dr. Dan. Cohen, 19??-, Los Angeles County Natural History Museum, is intersted in deep sea fishes.

Ferdinand Julius Cohn, (24 Jan. - Breslau) 1828-1898 (25 June - Breslau), German plant physiologist, microbiologist and bacteriologist (considered to be the father of bacteriology), professor in Breslau. He was a disciple of Ehrenberg (q.v.) [Chlorocystis cohnii (Wright) Kornmann & Sahling, 1983 = Chlorochytrium cohnii E.P. Wright, 1877, Glenodinium cohnii Seligo, 1885, Lacrymaria cohni Kent, 1881, Licnophora cohni Claparède, 1867, Cothurnia cohni Kent, 1881].

M. Coillot, 1???-, mechanician in chief on the oceanographic ship of Ivory Coast, "Reine Pokou" who by harpoon captured the devil-fish Mobula coilloti Cadenat & Rancurel, 1960

Could Coindet, appearing in the name Illex coindetii (Vérany,1839) refer to Jean François (also called Charles) Coindet, 1774-1834, Swiss physician? There was also an entomologist, Jean Paul Coindet, publishing in 1859 and 1860.

Dr. Nicole Coineau, 19??-, speleologist and peracarid researcher (mainly isopodologist) at the museum in Paris and at Observatiore Oceanologique de Banyuls, Laboratoire Arago, is (beside in the names of some ostracods from cave systems) honoured in the isopod name Microcharon coineauae Galhano, 1970 and the copepod name Delavalia coineauae (Soyer, 1972). The copepod name Ceratonotus coineaui Soyer, 1964 is likely named for her namesake (husband?) Prof. Yves Coineau, 19??-, French acarina researcher.

Robert Ervin Coker, (4 June) 1876-1967 (2 Oct.), Marine biologist from the Univ. of North Carolina, who collected marine invertebrates, while serving as a fisheries expert for the Peruvian Government between 1906-08. In 1937 he was president of the Ecological Society of America [Aligena cokeri Dall, 1909, Tomopagurus cokeri (Hay, 1917)].

Jules Alexandre Joseph Colbeau, 1823-1881, Belgian malacologist, mainly interested in non marine material.

The British physician and writer Dr. John Coldstream, 1806-1863, of Leith, was an amateur naturalist collecting in the Torquay area during the middle of the 19:th century.

Mr. Neville Coleman, 1938-, Australian diver and publisher of several popular books on diving and marine biology of the South Pacific area, who collected material of Pseduceros colemani Prudhoe, 1977 [Colemaniella Gibson, 1985, Periclimenes colemani A.J. Bruce, 1975, Cytharomorula lowei colemani W. F. Ponder, 1972, Pterotyphis colemani W. F. Ponder, 1972, Echinaster colemani Rowe and Albertson, 1987, Polyandrocarpa colemani Kott, 1994, Chromodoris colemani Rudman, 1982, Tripterotyphis colemani (Ponder, 1972), Phyllodesmium colemani Rudman, 1991, Dendronephthya colemani Grasshoff, 1978, Parapercis colemani Randall & Francis, 1990, Heteroclinus colemani Hoese, 1976, Monastrea colemani Veron, 2000, Moolabalia nevillecolemani Alderslade, 2001, Lissosquilla colemani Ahong, 2001, Hippocampus colemani Kuiter, 2003, likely Mictognathus colemani Otto, 2001].

The amphipod name Parvipalpus colemani Guerra-Garcia, 2003 is named for Dr. Charles Oliver (Olli) Coleman, 1959-, conservator of Crustacea at the Zoological Museum (Museum für Naturkunde) in Berlin and a prominent amphipod researcher (and boomerang thrower). (Prof. Wim Vader, Tromsø, kindly provided this information).

The nematode names Austranema colesi (Inglis, 1958) & Hypodontolaimus colesi Inglis, 1962 is likely honouring John W. Coles, 19??-?? (deceased), Liss, Hampshire, who worked on nematodes on the Natural History Museum, London during the 1970s (and published at least until 1996). (Mary E. Spencer Jones, curator of recent Bryozoa, the Natural History Museum, London, kindly provided this information in Sep. 2005)

The Bahama skate name Breviraja colesi Bigelow & Schroeder, 1948 is likely a tribute the "shark-watcher" Russell J. Coles, 18??-19??, who in 1910-26 published on rays and sharks of Cape Lookout, North Carolina.

Dr. Don J. Colgan, 19??-, malacologist at the Australian Museum, Sydney, is honoured in the bivalve name Spisula colganae Healy & Lamprell, 1992. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided some of this information). A namesake was Nathaniel Colgan, (28 May - Dublin) 1851-1919 (20 Oct. - Dublin), a clerk in the Dublin Metropolitan Police Court, who originally interested himself in botany, but later turned over to collect marine mollusks (e.g. taking part in the Clare Island Survey) and had a substantial collection of shells, now in the Natinal Museum of Ireland.

Lacking information about Colin in the fish name Callionymus colini Fricke, 1993.

Prof. Robert Collett, (2 Dec. - Oslo) 1842-1913 (27 Jan. - Oslo), Norwegian zoologist, working on vertebrates, particularly fishes. From 1864 he was curator at the Zoological Museum in Oslo, in 1882 director (together with G.O. Sars) and in 1884 professor there; he never married [Collettea K. Lang, 1973, Phronima colletti Bovallius, 1887, Careproctus colletti Gilbert, 1896, Gadomus colletti Jordan & Gilbert, 1904, despite the spelling likely also Smittina colleti (Jullien, 1903)]. A namesake was the UK malacologist Oliver Collett, 1867-1902.

Dr. Bruce Baden Collette, (14 Mar.) 1934-, US ichthyologist (for long time General Ichthyology Editor of Copeia), provided specimens of Ecsenius collettei Springer, 1972 (pisces) [Tuxoporus collettei Crassey & Crassey, 1980].

The gastropod name Natica colliei Récluz, 1844. and the spotted ratfish name Hydrolagus colliei (Lay & Bennett, 1839) are honouring Dr. Alexander Collie, (2 June - Wantonwallis farm, Insch, Aberdeenshire) 1793-1835 (8 Nov. - on his way to Sydney with H.M.S. Zebra for further transport to London in order to recover his weakening health, probably TBC), ship's surgeon and early amateur naturalist onboard Captain Beechey's Blossom (q.v.). Settled in Albany, Western Australia, 1829 and an Australian town is also named after him.

Clinton L. Collier, 19??-, US Pacific opisthobranch researcher, who at least has published since the 1960s. Another US malacologist is Ries Stuart Collier, 1944-, An earlier malacological namesake from UK was Edward Collier, 1846-1920.

Jonas Sigismund Collin, 1840-1905, Danish zoologist (and cabinet minister), who worked on birds, oysters and the marine fauna of Limfjorden. He was the grandson of Jonas C. Collin, (6 Jan.) 1776-1861 (28 Aug.), who was an early promotor of Natural History in Denmark. The Collin family (J. C. Collin's grandfather Balzer Jensen was origining from the town Kolding, hence the family name) were close friends of the story teller H.C. Andersen (2 Apr.) 1805-1875 (4 Aug.), and (through the older J. Collin) supported him economically during his youth.

Lacking information about Collin in the rhynchodidan name Parahypocoma collini Chatton & Lwoff, 1939. It is likely not honouring the British dipterologist James Edward Collin, 1876-1968, but probably a B. Collin, working on an acinetian commensal of copepods and who published together with Chatton in 1910, likely identical with the French botanist Bernard Collin, 1881-1915,. The Belgian malacologist Gustave Collin, 1853-1876, probably lived too early and short.

Dr. Walter E. Collinge, 1867-1947, Univ. of Birmingham, later keeper of the Yorkshire Museum, worked on both insects and crustaceans (mainly isopods & also other animals, like birds) [Paridothea collingei Poore & Ton, 1993].

Lacking information about Collings in the sponge name Stelletta collingsi (Bowerbank, 1866).

Cuthbert Collingwood, (25 Dec. - Christchurch, Hampshire) 1826-1908 (20 Oct.), published i.a. on nudibranchs [Chromodoris colingwoodi ]. (More)

Mrs. Barbara Collins, 19??-, Cairns, Queensland, assisted the authors of Dentalium collinsae Lamprell & Healey, 1998.

Frank Shipley Collins, (6 Feb. - Boston) 1848-1920 (25 May - New Haven, Connecticut), Massachusetts hobby phycologist with a large production of scientific papers [Phaeosaccion collinsii Farlow, Chondria collinsiana M. Howe].

Dr. Martin Collins, 19??-, British cephalopod and fish scientist in Cambridge.

J.C. Collins,1870-1903, from Guernsey, "a keen dredger", [Crinophteiros collinsi (Sykes, 1903)].

The bivalve name Portlandia collinsoni Dall, 1919 was described from off Collinson Point, Alaska, so it is a toponym rather than an eponym, named by the US Navy Lt Comdr. C.H. Stockton for Sir (knighted in 1875) Richard Collinson, 1811-1883 (13 Sep.), English naval officer, who commanded HMS Enterprise in 1851 & 1853-54 off northern Alaska in the search for Sir John Franklin and his expedition. (A place with the same name in British Columbia, Canada, was named for William Tompkins Collinson, 1839-19??, a man from Yorkshire, who had arrived on this coast in 1858 and together with his wife Mary Mussel and their children, settled in the area and in 1895 built a house on Mayne Island). (Dr. E. Charles Nelson, U.K., of Irish origin, kindly provided this suggestion before the toponymic explanation of the name was introduced in the text above:) "I wonder if this has anything to do with Peter Collinson, (Jan.) 1694-1768 (11 Aug.), best known as a botanist/horticulturist. This would tend to be suggested by the association with Portlandia (after the Duchess of Portland (q.v.) - there is also a botanical Portlandia, named by Patrick Browne, in 1756). Collinson was an avid collector and obtained natural history specimens especially for eastern N America. He certainly corresponded with her and invited her to dine at his home. There are a few references in the new book - O'Neill, J. and McLean, E. P. Peter Collinson and the eighteenth-century natural history exchange. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, 2008 (Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society 263). Pp xxii, 216; illustrated. Price US$ 75. ISBN978-0-87169-264-1. It is possible that the type of Portlandia collinsoni came from the duchess famous museum which was auctioned after her death." This was evidently not the case, but Arthur Adams (q.v.) introduced two names of gastropods, the Guam species Vexillum collinsoni (A. Adams, 1864) and the Japanese species Mitra collinsoni A. Adams & P.Z.S. Smith, 1879, which possibly may honour Peter Collinson. According to kind information from Dr. E. Charles Nelson only Collinsonia (Lamiaceae) bears his mame among herbs.

Mrs. Mary Colliver, 19??-, volunteer at Queensland Museum (Malacology Sect.) [Cadulus colliverae Lamprell & Healey, 1998].

Mr. Phillip H. Colman, 1937?-, (age 63 in January 2001), worked as Technical Officer at the Malacological Section of the Australial Museum betweem 1968-98 [Tesseracme philcolmani Lamprell & Healey, 1998, Heliacus colmani Garrard, 1977, Pisinna colmani Ponder & Yoo, 1976, Conus colmani D. Röckel & W. Korn, 1990, Rhomboxiphus colmani (Palmer, 1974)].

The Spanish geologist and naturalist Guillermo Colom Casanovas, 1900-1993, published on foraminiferans at least between 1950-83 and is honoured in Cycloforina colomi (Le Calvez, J. & Y., 1958). (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly provided this information).

Guiseppe Colosi, (29 Mar.) 1892-1975 (20 Oct.), Italian zoologist working especially with mysids and other crustaceans, first in Turin in the beginning of the 1920s and in Florence between 1940-62.

José Coltro, 1960- [Muricopsis josei Vokes, 1994, Fusinus josei Hadorn & Rogers, 2000], and Marcus Coltro, 1964- [Muricopsis marcusi Vokes, 1994, Fusinus marcusi Hadorn & Rogers, 2000], brothers and shells dealers (since 1989 and collectors since 1976) in São Paulo, Brazil. José is currently (2001) the Public Relations of Conchologists of America. Marcus was President of Conquiliologistas do Brasil between 1994-99. [Polystira coltrorum Petuch, 1993, Chicoreus coltrorum (E.Vokes, 1991), Fusinus coltrorum Hadorn & Rogers, 2000, Strictispira cultrorum Tippett, 2006]. {pictures: courtesy of the Coltro brothers; Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly added the last eponym}.

The decapod name Pontoniopsis comanthi Borradaile, 1915 is not in honour of a person named Comanth, but is associated with crinoids, likely of the genera Comanthina Clark, 1909, Comantheria Clark, 1909 or Comanthus Clark, 1908.

The nematode name Megeurystomina combesi Luc & de Coninck, 1959 is likely in honour of the French parasitologist Prof. Dr. Claude Combes, (22 July - Perpignan) 1935-,.

Marcel Combier, 1908-1993, "Administrateur des Colonies et Géologue qui fit à Dakar de belles récoltes malacologiques", is honoured in the bivalve name Sinupharus combieri Fischer-Piette & Nicklès, 1946.

The botanist Philibert Commerson, (18 Nov. - Châtillon les Dombes) 1727-1773 (13 Mar. - Mauritius), who as a correspondent of Linnaeus (q.v.) collected Mediterranean fishes for him and took part in several large expeditions, e.g. together with Bougainville (q.v.) after whom de Commerson named the plant genus Bougainvillea (and in company with the governess of his son, soon his mistress Jeanne Baret (also spelled Barret or Baré), (27 July - La Comelle) 1740-1807 (5 Aug.), masked as a man (named Jean Bonnefoy and pretending to be the botanist's valet - the first woman on a circumnavigation; her disguise was however detected by a Tahitian chieftain with the words "Vahiné, Vahiné" meaning "woman, woman"; de Commerson named the plant genus Baretia after her, including a species with ambiguous sexual characteristics; also the plant Hydrangea hortensia P.F. von Siebold - a synonym of H. macrophyllum (Thunberg) (von Siebold's name likely derived from Lamarck's earlier name Hortensia opuloides for the same species) - is said to be named for her, because for some reason she changed her first name to Hortense after Commerson's decease). He is himself honoured in the fish names Fistularia commersonii (Rüppell, 1835), Scomberomorus commerson (Lacépède, 1800), Ambassis commersoni Cuvier, in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1828 (fresh water species), Catastomus commersoni (Lacépède, 1803), Antennarius commersoni (Latreille, 1804) and in the whale name Cephalorhynchus commersonii (Lacépède, 1804); also other creatures are named for him, e.g. a bat).

Dr. Leonard J.V. Compagno, 19??-, shark taxonomist at the South African Museum, Cape Town (PhD Stanford Univ. in 1979), is honoured in the skate name Leucoraja compagnoi (Stehmann, 1995) and in the shark name Etmopterus compagnoi Fricke & Koch, 1990.

The cowry name Notocypraea comptonii (Gray, 1847) is in honour of the Marquess of Northampton, William Compton, (20 Aug.) 1818-1897 (11 Sep.).

Francois Xavier Julien Theophilee Le Comte, 1819-1884, Belgian malacologist.

Dr. Thierry Comtet, 19??-, of the Centre IFREMER de Brest, France is honoured in the gastropod name Dendronotus comteti Valdés & Bouchet, 1998. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided some of this information).

Dr. Franklin Story Conant, (21 Sep.) 1870-1897 (13 Sep. - Boston (by yellow fever)), published in 1898 in Baltimore his PhD dissertation (achieved the same year as he died) "The Cubomedusae : a memorial volume" [Aglauropsis conanti Browne, 1902].

Turris condei Vera Pelaez, Vega Luz & Lozano, 2000 was named for ambassador Javier Conde de Saro, (13 Mar.) 1946-, Spanish conchologist [Minolia condei  Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006]. (G. Poppe kindly provided one of the eponyms).

Cirrhilabrus condei Allen & Randall, 1996 was named for Prof. Bruno Condé, (5 Mar. - Nancy) 1920-2004 (11 Feb.), professor at the University Henry Poincaré, Nancy, (France) and director of Nancy Zoological Museum and Aquarium.

Professor Lucien A.P. de Coninck, (31 July - Zingem) 1909-1988 (Gent), Belgian nematodologist in Gent [Richtersia deconincki Vincx, 1981, Pseudonchus deconincki Warwick, 1969, Anomonema deconincki (Jensen, 1976), Diplolaimelloides deconincki (Gerlach, 1951) Meyl, 1954, Rhynchonema deconincki Vitiello, 1967, Coninckia Gerlach, 1956, Paralinhomoeus deconincki Groza-Rojancovski, 1972, Pselionema deconincki Vitiello & Haspeslagh, 1972].

Prof. Dr. Edwin Grant Conklin, (24 Nov. - Waldo, Ohio) 1863-1952 (20 Nov.), US invertebrate zoologist (PhD in 1891) and malacologist, who spent most of his life in Princeton, but also working i.a. in Florida and on Bermudas. He was deeply religious. [Licnophora conklini Stevens, 1904]. A portrait is found in (web page 26) Bermuda Biological Station for Research - 100 years.

Kathleen Conlan, 19??-, amphipod researcher, at Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa [Rhachotropis conlanae Bousfield & Hendrycks, 1995, Heterophoxus conlanae Jarrett & Bousfield, 1994].

Dr. Allan Donovan Connell, (11 Dec.) 1943-, of Durban, South Africa, who dredged the holotype of Terebra connelli Bratcher & Cernohorsky, 1985 also discovered Cypraeovula connelli (Liltved, 1983) [Drillia (Clathrodrillia) connelli Kilburn, 1988, Emarginula connelli Kilburn, 1978, Anthias connelli Heemstra & Randall 1986].

Lacking information about Phillip M. Connelly, 1???-, the collector in Baja California, Mexico of the polyplacophoran Callistochiton connellyi Willett, 1937 (a junior synonym of C. palmulatus Carpenter in Pilsbry, 1893).

Major Matthew William Kemble Connolly, (13 Feb. - Bath) 1872-1947, British malacologist active in South Africa, is honoured in the bivalve name Glycymeris connollyi Tomlin, 1925.

Timothy Abbott Conrad, (21 June - close to Trenton, New Jersey) 1803-1877 (9 Aug. - Trenton), U.S. geologist at the N. Y. State Survey, Smithsonian Inst., N.C. Geol. Survey, etc. Also malacologist and crustacean researcher. He was an early member of the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia. Sorrily he was often plagued with bouts of depression, which e.g. made him resign from the Geological and Natural History Survey in 1842. [Glyphostoma conradiana (Gabb, 1869), Turbonilla conradi Bush, 1899, Penitella conradi Valenciennes, 1846, Thracia conradi Couthuoy, 1838].

Sophie Conroy-Dalton, 1968-, at the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) is working on free-living marine harpacticoid copepods.

Lacking information about Constancia in the W African fish name Epigonus constanciae (Giglioli, 1880).

Nicolò Bertucci Contarini, 1780-1849, Venetian naturalist [Mycale contarenii (Martens, 1824), Calothrix contarenii Bornet & Flahault]

Lacking information about Contier in the amphipod name Stenothoe contieri Chevreux, 1908.

The gastropod names Triphora contrerasi F. Baker, 1926 and likely also Odostomia contrerasi Baker, Hanna & Strong, 1928 is in honour of the Mexican zoologist Prof. Francisco Contreras Alvarez, 1???-19??, Director of the National Museum of Natural History, Mexico City, "who was detailed by the Mexican Government to accompany the Academy Expedition of 1921".

Dicoryne conybeari (Allman, 1864) was first collected by it's author during a dredging excursion in company with "an accomplished microscopist, Henry Conybeare, Esq.", 1???-1???, at Ireland (Bay of Glengariff). Possibly this man may be identical with the civil engineer and architect Henry Conybeare, 1823-1???, who still was alive in 1897.

Edward Coode-Hore, 1848-1922, English traveller and missionary in Tanganyika, who collected fish from Lake Tanganyika, which were described by Günther (q.v.). Boulenger (q.v.) succeded Coode-Hore as fish collector [Coodea Bourguignat, 1890]. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly provided one of the dates).

Dr. David G. Cook, 1941-, is honoured in the oligochaete name Adelodrilus cooki Erséus, 1978. Cook had earlier described this genus.

Lacking information about Cook in the hydroid name Errina cooki Hickson, 1912.

Lacking information about Isaac? Cook in the bivalve name Chama isaacooki Healy, Lamprell & Stanisic, 1993.

Capt. James Cook, (27 Oct. - Marton, Yorkshire) 1728-1779 (14 Feb. - Hawaii), British well-known navigator [Crambione cooki Mayer, 1910, likely Paliolla cooki (Angas, 1864), likely Demonax cooki Kinberg, 1867, likely Histioteuthis cookiana Dell, 1951, likely Tridacna cookiana T. Iredale, 1937, possibly Leptaxinus cookianus Fleming, 1950, possibly Lophopagurus cooki (Filhol, 1883)].

Patricia Lynette Cook, 19??-, British bryozoan researcher, later associated to Museum of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia [Cookinella d'Hondt, 1981].

Charles Montague Cooke, Jr., (20 Dec. - Honolulu) 1874-1948 (29 Oct), U.S. malcologist [likely Cyclostrema cookeanum (Dall, 1918), likely Epitonium cookeanum Dall, 1917, likely Hypermastus cookeanus (Bartsch, 1917), Odostomia cookeana Bartsch, 1912, Turbonilla cookeana Bartsch, 1912, likely Macranthea cookei Verrill A.E., 1928, Dentalium cookei Sharp & Pilsbry in Pilsbry & Sharp, 1897, Charabdys cookei Rathbun in Edmondson, 1923 (Cooke collected type specimen)]. An earlier US malacological namesake was Jeanette M. Cooke, 1843-1920.

Mordecai Cubitt Cooke, (12 July) 1825-1914 (12 Noc.), British naturalist (mycologist), who between 1876-90 described some fungi from marine algae.

Lacking information about Cooke in the Prickly Shark name Echinorhinus cookei Pietschmann, 1928.

Prof. August Coomans, (14 Sep.) 1936-, Zoological Institute, Univ. of Gent, is a renowned nematologist [Philosyrtis coomansi Martens & Schockaert, 1981, Typhlopolycystis coomansi Schockaert & Karling, 1975, Pomponema coomansi Vincx, 1981, Dorylaimopsis coomansi Muthumbi, Soetaert & Vincx, 1997, Pseudochromadora coomansi Verschelde & Vincx, 1995, Coralliotantulus coomansi Huys, 1990, Sclerocypris coomansi Martens, 1986, Richtersia coomansi Soetaert & Vincx, 1987, Perepsilonema coomansi Vanreusel & Vincx, 1986, Enchodelus coomansi Warwick, Stewart & Stewart, 1984, Sabatieria coomansi Chen & Vincx, 1999]. Another namesake, Dr. Hendrikus (Henry) Eduard Coomans, 1929-, from the Netherlands is a malacologist [Turbonilla coomansi van Aartsen, 1994], i.a. publishing about the Pectinidae of the World. He retired in 1994 from his curatorship at the Zoological Museum Amsterdam, where he had worked from 1965 (also as university docent). The last 4 years during the 1950s he spent in Curaçao and surroundings, studying and collecting molluscs. After that he was employed for 5 years in the mollusc department of the American Museum of Natural History, before returning home. He defended his PhD thesis in 1974 on the life and works of another Caribbean worker, van Rijgersma (q.v.).

The US physician, ichthyologist, ornithologist and malacologist Dr. James Graham Cooper, (19 June - New York City) 1830-1902 (19 July - Haywards, Alameda Co., California), is honoured in the polyplacophoran name Lepidozona cooperi H. F. Carpenter In W. H. Dall, 1879, in the gastropod names Turritella cooperi Carpenter, 1864, Puncturella cooperi Carpenter, 1864, Epitonium cooperi Strong, 1930, Cancellaria cooperi Gabb, 1865, Coryphella cooperi Cockerell, 1901 & Caecum cooperi S. Smith, 1860, in the bivalve names Yoldia cooperi Gabb, 1865 & Cooperella Carpenter, 1864, in the fish name Callionymus cooperi Regan, 1908 and in the coral name Trochocyathus cooperi (Gardiner, 1905). His father William Cooper, 1798-1864 (Apr.), was founder of Lyceum of Nat. Hist., N.Y. and became the first US member of the Zool. Soc. of London.

The gastropod name Fusiturricula fenimorei Bartsch, 1934 is likely honouring the US novelist James Fenimore Cooper, (15 Sep. - Burlington, New Jersey) 1789-1851 (14 Sep. - Cooperstown, New York), who as young (until 1811) was a sailor and also became a friend of DeKay (q.v.) and thus likely interested also in the sea and natural history.

Gustav Arthur Cooper, (9 Feb.) 1902-2000 (17 Oct.), US brachiopod worker at Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.

Lacking information about Cooper in the tanaid name Apseudes cooperi Brown, 1954.

Edward Drinker Cope, (28 July - Philadelphia) 1840-1897 (12 Apr. - Philadelphia) {see also}, who had studied at the Univ. of Pennsylvania and in Europe, a many-sided zoologist, was America's greatest herpetologist. He was perhaps best-known for the "dinosaur wars" with his rival Prof. Othniel Charles Marsh, (29 Oct. - Lockport, New York) 1831-1899 (18 Mar. - New Haven (by pneumonia)), paleontologist of Yale (who was a nephew of George Peabody, (18 Feb. - South Danvers, Mass. (now known as Peabody in honour of its famous son)) 1795-1869 (4 Nov. - London), who changed from a poor Massachusetts boy to a very rich man after decades of business in i.a. Baltimore and London and gave away around 9 million US$ to educational purposes, e.g. to two museums bearing his name at Yale and Harward). Born in Philadelphia, Cope died too young, also in Philadelphia, but still acquired a long lifetime of honors. He published nearly 1,400 papers, including large monographs. The journal "Copeia," from the American Society of Ichthyology and Herpetology since 1913, is named for him. He believed in a God, but not in immortality and his sense of humour made him honour all who hated him when naming Anisonchus cophater Cope [Xenodermichthys copei (Gill, 1884)]. (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly provided this information).

Chiton coppingeri E.A. Smith was named for Dr. Richard William Coppinger, (Dublin) 1847-1910 (2 Apr. - Fareham, Hants.), naval lieutenant (and staff surgeon, R.N., M.D. and C.M.Z.S.); naturalist on the "Alert" in Patagonian, Polynesian, and Mascarene waters 1878-82 [Calliostoma coppingeri (E.A. Smith, 1880), Murex coppingeri E. A. Smith, 1884, Idas coppingeri (E.A. Smith, 1885)]. He published a book about the cruise. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly provided one of the dates and some other information).

Lacking information about Coppola in the gastropod name Diziniopsis coppolae Aradas, 1870.

Lacking information about Corbel in the amphipod name Apherusa corbeli Lagardère, 1968.

Lacking information about P.G. Corbin, 19??-, in the stauromedusan name Kishinouyea corbini Larson, 1980. He worked on British stauromedusae (& other medusae, siphonophores and youth stages of fish) at the Plymouth Laboratory and published at least from 1942 until the late 1970s.

Lacking information about Cordero in the gastropod name Guivillea corderoi (Carcelles, 1947) and in the triclade name Leucolesma corderoi Marcus, 1948. Possibly honouring Luis Cordero, 1833-1912, from Ecuador, who published "Enumeración Botánica de las Principales plantas? del Azuay y de Cañar" in 1911, but perhaps more likely for Dr. Ergasto Héctor Cordero, (9 Apr. - Montevideo) 1890-1951 (20 Sep.), who is honoured in the trematode name Catadiscus corderoi Mañé-Garzón, 1958. (Prof. Albina Gaevskaya, Sevastopol, kindly provided the parasitic information; mor info in http://www.mec.gub.uy/munhina/pdf/CZvol4.pdf ).

The gastropod name Raphitoma cordieri Payraudeau, 1826 may possibly be a tribute to the French geologist and mineralogist Pierre Louis Antoine Cordier, 1777-1861.

The Rev. Charles Cordiner, 1746-1794 (18 Nov.), British correspondent of Pennant (q.v.), from 1769 working in St. Andrews Chapel at Banff. Cordiner published a few books, i.a. dealing with marine invertebrates.

The marine gastropods Zebina cordorae de Jong & Coomans, 1988 and Persicula cordorae de Jong & Coomans, 1988 are named after Cor and Dora de Jong, 19??- & 19??-, a shell-collecting couple, who supplied the Zoological Museum of Amsterdam with material from Curaçao.

Prof. Dr. James Xavier Corgan, 1930-, U.S. professor of Geology (at Austin Peay State University between 1968-92) and malacologist who wrote many articles about the gastropod family pyramidellidae during the1970s, is honoured in the bivalve name Litigiella corgani van Aartsen, 1996. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided some of this information and Dr. Eugene V. Coan kindly provided the date).

Carl(o) Isidor(e) Cori, (24 Feb. - Brüx, Nordböhmen) 1865-1954 (31 Aug.), Austrian director of the marine biological station in Trieste, who studied i.a. Mediterranean plankton and worked on the i.a. phoronids and bryozoans. His son Carl Ferdinand Cori received the Nobel prize in Physiology in 1947.

Lacking information about Corinne in the gastropod name Engina corinnae Crovo, 1971.

Gaspard-Gustav de Coriolis, (21 May - Paris) 1792-1843 (19 Sep.), is of course most known for the "force" or effect named for him. He also coined the term "work" for for the product of force and distance.

John O. Corliss, (Feb. - ranch in central Kansas) 1922-, US ciliatologist, honoured in the genus name Corlissia Dragesco, 1960.

Emilio Cornalia, (21 July - Milano) 1824-1882 (8 June - Milano), Italian zoologist and mineralogist, who i.a. published together with Prof. Paolo Panceri, 1833-1877, the latter more often working on marine organisms than Cornalia [Anseropoda pancerii (Gasco, 1870), Lampea pancerina (Chun, 1979), Microcotyle pancerii Sonsino,1891, Sciaenocotyle panceri (Sonsino,1891)].

Cornelia in the copepod name Asterocheres corneliae Schirl, 1973 : (see Schirl).

Paul Frederick Sinel Cornelius, 1943-, Coelenteratologist, working mainly on hydrozoans, at the Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), but retired September 2000 [Streptocaulus corneliusi (Ramil & Vervoort, 1992)].

The marine gastropod name Alvania corneti Hoenselaar & Goud, 1998 is named after Mr. C. Cornet, 19??-, for his participation in the CANCAP-expedition for marine biological research in the Canarian-Cape Verdean region of the North Atlantic Ocean (1976-1986).

Abudefduf corneyi Jordan & Dickerson, 1908 was named for the British physician, anthropologist and writer Dr. Bolton Glanville Corney, 1851-1924, who collected the type at Suva.

Lacking information about Coronado in the gastropod names Phalium coronadoi (Crosse, 1867) and Borsonella coronadoi (Dall, 1908). May the names possibly honour the Spanish explorer in North America, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, 1510-1554?

Lacking information about Coronini in the amphipod name Melita coroninii Heller, 1866.

Prof. Dr. Diva Diniz Corrêa, (10 May) 1918-1993 (28 Apr.), Nemerteanologist at the Dept. de Zoologia, São Paulo (who, however published a dissertation in 1964 on Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia), working with interstitial species between 1948-66. While staying for a while in Florida, she became addicted to a North American drink and named Zygonemertes cocacola for it. See also Marcus [Ototyphlonemertes correae Envall, 1996, Dinizia Marcus, 1947 divae Marcus, 1947, Itaipusa divae Marcus, 1949 Neolineus divae Santos,1974, Divanella Gibson, 1973, Nembrotha divae Marcus, 1958, Lapinura divae (Marcus & Marcus, 1963), Doto divae Marcus, 1960, Precuthona divae Marcus, 1961, Piseinotecus divae Marcus, 1955, Parastenocaris divae Noodt, 1972, Pentaplana divae Marcus, 1949, Stylochoplana divae Marcus, 1947, Notoplana divae Marcus, 1948, Candimba divae Marcus, 1949, Conaperta divae (Marcus, 1950), Ophioderma divae Tommasi, 1971, Candimba divae Marcus, 1949, Thallagus divae Marcus, 1951, Pseudaphanostoma divae Marcus, 1952, Trigonostomum divae Marcus, 1948, Hoploplana divae Marcus, 1950, Boninia divae Marcus & Marcus, 1968, Minona divae Marcus, 1951, likely Ascidia correi C. Monniot, 1970, possibly Emarginula divae van Aartsen & Carrozza, 1995, possibly Raphitoma divae Carrozza, 1984, possibly Mancikellia divae van Aartsen & Carrozza, 1997, possibly Skenea divae Carrozza,F. & van Aartsen, J.J, 2001, Phyllactis correae Schlenz E. & Belém M. J. d., 1992]. (Luiz Ricardo L. Simone, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, kindly provided the dates).

Mrs. Susanna Corrie, 18??-1???, of Woodville near Birmingham, England, was interested in malacology and active during at least the 1840s.

Rudo von Cosel, 1940-, German malacologist at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [Paradentalium rudoi Scarabino, 1995, Periploma (Periploma) coseli Ardila & Diaz, 1998, Anachis coseli Diaz & Mittnacht, 1991, Africanella coseli (Houart, 1989), Megastomia coseli Penas & Rolan, 1999, Alvania coseli Gofas, 1999, Ocenebra coseli R. Houart, 1989, Paradentalium rudoi Scarabino, 1995]. (Dr. Métivier at the MNHN, Paris kindly provided the birth date).

Dr. Tiziano Cossignani, 19??-, from Ancona, is Founder of Mostra Mondiale di Malacologia di Cupra Marittima and publisher of litterature regarding medicin and shells, is honoured in the gastropod name Eulimella cossignaniorum van Aartsen, 1995 emend. Nofroni & Tringali, 1995. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly provided this information).

Alexandre Édouard Maurice Cossmann, (18 Sep.? or 16 Oct.?) 1850-1924 (17 May), French palaeomalacologist [Krachia cossmanni (Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1896), Boreotrophon cosmanni E. A. A. Locard, 1897, possibly Chicoreus cosmani R. T. Abbott, & H. J. Finlay, 1979].

Oronzio Gabriele Costa, (26 Aug. - Alessano) 1787-1867 (7 Nov. - Napoli), Italian malacologist and professor of Zoology at the University of Napoli (Naples) [Costasiella], father of the malacologist Achille Costa, (10 Aug. - Lecce) 1823-1898 (17 Nov. - Roma) {another picture}. They also worked on e.g. crustacaens [Costa Neviani, 1928, Plagiobrissus costai (Gasco, 1876), Eudistoma costai (Della Valle, 1877), Skogsbergia costai Kornicker, 1974, Stiliger costai Pruvot-Fol, 1951, Stiliger costai Pruvot-Fol, 1951, Hervia costai Haefelfinger, 1961]. O.G. Costa's other son, Guiseppe Costa, was a zoologist as well.

The word conchology is first appearing in the 1770-71 anonymously published "Conchology, or the natural history of shells", which in reality was written by the British naturalist of Portugese (and Jewish) extraxtion Emanuel Mendez (Mendes) Da Costa, (5 June) 1717-1791 (31 May), during a prison sentence 1768-72, which he served because of embezzlement. His Sephardi family (parents Abraham & Esther, elder brother Jacob, younger brother David) had moved to London in around 1696. He had been a merchant, hobby conchologist and "fossilist" with extensive collections. In 1763 he was employed as clerk by the Royal Society and it was nearly £1.500 of this society's funds he had purloined for own purposes. Was possibly the English shell collector Solomon Israel Da Costa, 1827-1907, a relative or descendent of E. M. Da Costa? Another Portuguese is Antonio Da Costa, (12 Oct.) 1806-79 (4 June), Barão de Castelo de Paiva. He was born in Porto, interested in nature, especially botany, entomology and malacology. He died in Madeira.

Dr. John De Forest Costlow, 1927-, director of the Duke University Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, N.C., USA [Ophryotrocha costlowi Åkesson, 1978, Trisolenia megalactis costlowi Björklund & Goll, 1979].

Lacking information about Cott in the mysid name Heteromysoides cotti (Calman, 1932).

Lacking information about Cottard in the bivalve name Scrobicularia cottardi Payraudeau, 1826.

Arthur Disbrowe Cotton, 1879-1962, English botanist and phycologist [Fucus cottoni M.J. Wynne & Magne, 1991].

The Australian Bernard Charles Cotton, 1905-1966, curator of molluscs at the South Australian museum, Adelaide, was a prolific mollusc writer [Sepia cottoni W. Adam, 1979, Modiolus cottoni C. F. Laseron, 1956, Alaginella cottoni Boyer, 2001]. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided this information).

Dr. Richard Quiller Couch, (14 Mar. - Polperro) 1816-1863 (8 May - Penzance), wrote i.a. a 3 volume work about the fauna of his home county Cornwall [Reteporella couchii (Hincks, 1878), Nyctiphanes couchii (Bell, 1853), Monodaeus couchi (Couch, 1851), Epizoanthus couchii (Johnston, in Couch, 1844), Aiptasia couchii (Cocks, 1851)] together with his father, the physician and ichthyologist Jonathan Couch, (11 Mar. - Polperro) 1789-1870 (13 Apr. - Polperro), living in the small fishing village Polperro [Gobius couchi Miller & El-Tawil, 1974]. Although J. Couch was a learned person, who, i.a. translated Plinius "Naturalis historia" to English, he never achieved a formal medical degree after having worked at a hospital in London for a year, but yet became a well liked physician and naturalist of his home town and was the person who e.g. found a lancelet on the shore of Polperro, which he depicted and sent to Yarrel, who named it Amphioxus. R.Q. Coach, who had received a medical education in London, returned to his home to assist his father, but moved in 1845 to Penzance as a medical practitioner. He was married and left a widow with 4 children when he died too young.

The cowry name Erronea hungerfordi coucomi Schilder, 1964 is in honour of Cedric "Cedie" Coucom, 19??-1988 (boating accident), of Yeppoon, Queensland (more).

The nematod name Neochromadora coudenhovei Wieser, 1956, is honouring Hans Coudenhove, 1924-2004, a friend of Prof. Wieser and a grand-nephew of a namesake, who in 1925 published "My African Neighbors: Man, Bird and Beast in Nyasaland.". (The honoured person's daughter Sophia Coudenhove kindly provided this information).

Lacking information about Coudert in the gastropod name Conus couderti Bernardi, 1860.

Lacking information about Coue in the gastropod name Fusinus couei (Petit, 1853).

Dr. Elliott Coues, (9 Sep. - Portsmouth, NH) 1842-1999 (25 Dec.), US ornithologist, mammalogist, osteologist etc. He entered Columbia Ccollege (later Columbian Univ.) at age 17, became MD and joined the army in 1863. In 1881 he retired from the army as brevet Captain. At times was deeply involved with Madame Blavatsky and the Theosophists. He died at Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore after beeing operated on by Halstead. Death bed words: "Welcome, oh welcome beloved death". Auk obituary note (Auk XVII:91) states: "He was kind-hearted and helpful, of great tenacity of purpose, impulsive, and imaginative, sometimes aggressive, and not always discreet in his methods of controversy... His friendships were firm and lasting, and he did not easily forget an injury, whether fancied or real." [Cryptopsaras couesi Gill, 1883, Lithodes couesi Benedict, 1894] (Tommy Tyrberg kindly provided most of this information).

Father François Coulbois, 1851-1920, French or Belgian? missionary [Coulboisia Bourguignat,1890, Brazzaea coulboisi Bourguignat, 1886]. He published "Dix années au Tanganyka" in 1901.

Prof. Bruce Charles Coull, (16 Sep.) 1942-, at the Belle W. Baruch Institute for Marine Biology and Coastal Research, University of South Carolina, achieved his PhD in 1968 on a thesis on "Shallow water meiobenthos of the Bermuda platform" at the Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania [Coullana Por, 1984, Paramphiascella coulli Marcotte, 1974, Pyrocletodes coulli Dinet, 1975, Echinoderes coulli Higgins, 1977].

Courtenay-Latimer : (see Latimer).

Walter R. Courtney, 19??-, US ichthyologist [Rypticus courtneyi McCarthy, 1979 (pisces)].

Lacking information about Coustalin in the polychaete name Microphthalmus coustalini Fournier, 1991.

Jacques-Yves Cousteau, (11 June - Saint André de Cubsac) 1910-1997 (25 June - Paris), French well-known "oceanographer" from Brest. His son Jean-Michel Cousteau, (6 May - Toulon) 1938-, has continued in his fathers foot steps regarding diving.

Joseph Pitty Couthouy, (6 Jan. - Boston) 1808-1864 (4 Apr.), U.S. malacologist. He died in battle in Lousiana. He was Conchologist of the Scientific Corps of the U.S. Exploring Expedition, 1838-39, but was sent home from Honolulu by Admiral Wilkes for "disobedience of orders". Other occupations in his life was as Sea Captain and between 1861-64 he was Lt. in the U.S. (Union) Navy, where he eventually was shot during an ambush and died the following day [Couthouyella Bartsch, 1909, Admete couthoyi (Jay, 1839)].

Professor Henri Coutière, (4 March) 1869-1952 (23 Aug.), eminent specialist on crustaceans, born in Saulzet, dépt. Allier, Central France. He studied pharmacy in Paris, guided i.a. by A. Milne-Edwards (q.v.), who influenced him in direction towards alphaeid shrimp studies. After having made a collecting trip to the Jibuti reefs in 1897, he was appointed chief at the laboratory of zoological anatomy of the École des Hautes Études in Paris in 1899 and in 1900 he succeeded A. Milne-Edwards as professor of zoology of the "École supérieure de Pharmacie". He retired in 1937 and lived in Orvilliers, close to Paris until he died [Coutierella Sollaud, 1914, Glypturus coutierei (Nobili, 1904), Coutierea Nobili, 1901, Stenothoe coutieri Chevreux, 1908].

Lacking information about Couvril in the Gabon cockle name Acrosterigma couvrili (Fischer-Piette, 1972).

The amphipod name Parallorchestes cowani Bousfield & Hendrycks, 2002: "The patronym recognizes the outstanding career contributions of Dr Ian McTaggart-Cowan", (25 June - Edinburgh) 1910-2010 (18 Apr. - Saanich, Victoria), "former dean of Science, Univ. of Br. Columbia", who with his parents migrated to Canada at age 3. (Prof. Wim Vader, Tromsø, kindly provided this information). A few malacological namesakes are Rev. William Deans Cowan, 1844-1923 from Madagascar and Senator Edgar Cowan, 1815-1885, from Wetmoreland, Pennsylvania.

Dr. Robert H. Cowie, 1954-, UK bom malacologist at Bishops Museum, Hawaii.

Dr. James Charles Cox, (21 July - Mulgoa) 1834-1912 (29 Sep. - Mosman, Sydney), Australian physician and malacologist [Acanthochitona coxi H. A. Pilsbry, 1894, Chiton coxi Pilsbry, Erronea errones (Linnaeus, 1758) f. coxi Brazier, 1872]. {Picture / courtesy of R. Giannuzzi-Savelli}. He employed John McGillivray (q.v.) during the last years of this naturalist's life. One namesake is e.g. Roland Arthur Cox, (Lincoln, England) 1923-1967, Deep Sea biologist.

The diatom name Parlibellus coxiae Witkowski, Lange-Bertalot & Metzeltin must be a tribute to their colleague Eileen J. Cox, 19??-, who started to publish about diatoms around 1975.

The cowry name Blasicrura coxeni (J. C. Cox, 1873) is in honour of Mr. Coxen - likely Charles Coxen, (20 Apr. - Ramsgate, Kent, England) 1809-1876 (17 May - Bulimba, Brisbane), a naturalist (brother-in-law of John Gould (see von Wright) through Coxen's sister Elizabeth) and politician who joined his elder brother in New South Wales in February 1834. He married Elizabeth Frances Isaac in 1851. They never got any children, but she shared her husband's interest in conchology and had some reputation as a meteorologist. He was an interested Queensland shell collector with a particular interest in the cowry animal. His widow survived him until 11 August 1911, when she died at Bulimba, aged 80.

Rev. Clayton Mordaunt Cracherode, 1730-1799, British shell (also books & prints) collector, is honoured in the gastropod name Haliotis cracherodii Leach, 1814.

Mr. Ted Crake, 19??-, collected specimens of Duplicaria crakei Burch, 1965 in W Australia.

Henry Edward Crampton, (5 Jan.) 1875-1956 (26 Feb.), US palaeontologist, evolutionary biologist and malacologist.

The "indefatigable and infelicitous" collector and friend of Leach - John (to his friends "Jack") Cranch, (Exeter, christened the 4:th Apr.) 1785-1816 (4 Sep., after having being feverish the 23:th Aug. in the Yellow Fever), was the first finder of Thoralus cranchii (Leach, 1817) (in the Kingsbridge estuary at Plymouth) [Cranchia Leach, 1817, Ebalia cranchii Leach, 1817, Achaeus cranchii Leach, 1817, Cirolana cranchii Leach, 1818, Pandarus cranchii Leach, 1819, Chrysichthys cranchii (Leach, 1818), Euaulus cranchii (Leach, 1817), Loligo cranchii Blainville, 1823, Pandarus cranchii Leach, 1819]. Cranch's father Richard was a journeyman fuller, who was fond of music. John, who early became an orphan - his father had died when John was 8 years old - and to ease the the financial strain of his mother Jane, he was sent to Kingsbridge to be raised by an uncle, and at the age of 14 he began to study to become a shoemaker, but early became interested in i Natural History. At the end of his apprenticeship he visited London and its many Museums and when back in Kingsbridge, he married his cousin Jane Cranch, the eldest daughter of John Bowring, with whom he got a daughter, also evidenly named Jane. Through their common interest in natural history he had learned to know Montagu, and when visiting Montagu and learned to know Leach in 1814, during Leach's and Pridaeux's visit to Montagu, when Leach became very impressed by Cranch's large collections and his knowledge about natural history, so he employed him as a collector. Two US presidents - John Adams and his son John Quincey Adams were connected to the Cranch family through Judge William Cranch, 1769-1855, son of Richard Cranch, an English-born clockmaker in Massachusetts. In 1816 Jack Cranch, ex-shomaker, was employed as a zoologist on the Royal Navy sloop "Congo" under command of Captain James K. Tuckey, 1776-1816 (4 Oct.). This expedition was sent to the Congo River, to ascertain if this was the same as the Niger, recently discovered from the inland. However the scientific members of the expedition - including the Norwegian botanist/geologist Christen Smith, 1785-1816 (22 Sep.), [Anthosoma smithi Leach, 1816] all got tropical fevers and died one after the other, when going up the Congo River. However, their collections ended up with Leach (because 1/3:rd of of the total crew of "Congo" and its following ship "Dorothy" escaped with life), who named not less than 27 species after his friend Cranch, several after his death, perhaps feeling guilt of having recommended him to the expedition, where he lost his life? When Cranch, who was a deeply religious person, died, his last words is said to have been a prayer about the wellfare of his family.

The nemerten genus name Crandallia Härlin, 1998 is a tribute to the nemertean worker Dr. Frank B. Crandall, 19??-, at the Smithsonian Institution.

Jocelyn Crane Griffin, (11 June) 1909-1998 (16 Dec.), US fiddler crab specialist and bathyspere cooperator of William Beebe (q.v.). She was the wife of Prof. Donald Griffin. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly provided some of this information).

Alfred E. Craven, 1848-1937, British malacologist, i.a. collecting in east Africa.

Mr. A.W. Crawford, 18??-1???, of Oakland, California, shell collector [Cancellaria (Crawfordina Dall, 1919) crawfordiana Dall, 1891, Chiton crawfordi E. R. Sykes, 1899, Polinices crawfordianus W. H. Dall, 1908, Ocenebra crawfordi G. B. Sowerby III, 1892]. He may possibly be identical to the Pennsylvania born A.W. Crawford, who was US Consul in Antwerp between 1861-66. Likely however - according to kind information from David Hollombe, Los Angeles - the collector was probably Arthur Walter Crawford, 1829?-1895.

The diatom name Plagiogrammopsis crawfordii Witkowski, Lange-Bertalot & Metzeltin, 2000 is a dedication to Dr. Richard Crawford, 19??-, Alfred Wegener Institute, Bremerhaven.

Lionel Ruttledge Crawshay, 1868-1943 (or -1944?), was a naturalist at the Marine Biological Association, Plymouth in 1905-20 and again in 1935-39, after spending the years 1920-34 in charge of sponge fisheries investigations in the West Indies (and elsewhere). He published on i.a. copepods, pantopods, etc.

Crean : (see the Terra Nova expedition, 1910-).

Prof. Charles William Creaser, (31 Oct.) 1897-1965 (26 June), US Ichthyologist living in S. Dakota, Professor of Zoology, Wayne State University. Specialist on taxonomy of lampreys [Ruscarius creaseri (Hubbs, 1926)]. The US zoologist Charles William Creaser, 1924-, may likely be his son, because Prof. Creaser married in 1924.

Edwin Phillip Creaser, 1907-1981, US freshwater Decapoda researcher [Creaseria Holthuis 1950].

A. Cremoux, 1???-, who helped the author in field researchs [Deania cremouxi Cadenat 1960].

Dr. Roger Cressey, (9 June - Stoughton, Mass.) 1930-2001 (10 Jan. - Purcellville, Virginia), curator and prolific researcher of parasitic copepods and branchiura at the Smithsonian Institution. He was a student of A. Humes (q.v.) [Colobomatus cresseyi West, 1992, Haemobaphes cresseyi Kazachenko, 1995, Caligus cresseyorum Kabata, 1992]. (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly provided this information).

Rev. R. Cresswell, 1???-18??, British diatomist, working during the middle of the 19:th century [Schizothrix cresswellii Harvey]. A Richard Cresswell, who translated Aristoteles "Historia animalium" into English (published 1891) may possibly be the same person.

The marine gastropod Assiminea creutzbergi de Jong & Coomans, 1988 is named after Drs. Peter Creutzberg, 19??-, cineast and biologist. Possibly Berghia creutzbergi Marcus, 1970 may honour the same person?

The cestodan name Mixonybelinia cribbi Palm & Beveridge, 2002 is a tribute to Dr. Thomas Herbert Cribb, (15 Aug. - Brisbane) 1960-, parasitologist at the Univ. of Queensland. (Mary E. Spencer Jones, curator of recent Bryozoa, the Natural History Museum, London, kindly provided this information).

Charles Theodore Cribb, 1888-1976, UK Malacologist.

The ichthyologist Oliver A. Crimmen, 1954-, at the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) is likely the person honoured in the copepod name Exopenna crimmeni Boxshall, 1986.

Mary Crisp, 19??-, tardigrade researcher and at the time of the description cooperator of the author of Halobiotus crispae Kristensen, 1982; left later on biology in order to constitute a family.

Prof. Dennis John Crisp, (29 Apr. - London) 1916-1990 (18 Jan.), British marine biologist and ecologist working at the Department of Marine Biology, University of Wales, Bangor 1962-1983, later Prof. Emeritus.

The leptostracan Sarsinebalia cristoboi Moreira, Gestoso & Troncoso, 2003 is in honour of Dr. Francisco Javier Cristobo Rodríguez, (Ferrol) 1963-, Univ. of Santiago, a Galician specialist of Spongiaria.

Guiseppe de Cristofori, (11 Oct. - Milano) 1803-1837 (27 Dec. - Milano), Italian malacologist, who published together with Georg Jan (q.v.).

Mr. Charles Templeton Crocker, (San Francisco) 1885-1948, the leader of the homonym expedition in Galapagos Isl. (likely using the topsail gaff rigged schooner Zaca, launched 1930 at Sausalito, which served until 1939 as oceanagraphic reseach vessel) [Cardium crockeri Strong & Hertlein, 1937, Neoturris crockeri Bigelow, 1940, Lepidozona crockeri R. W. Willett In L. G. Hertlein & A. M. Strong, 1951, Solen crockeri J. G. Hertlein & A. M. Strong, 1950]. He was the youngest child of the banking and railrod magnate Charles Frederick Crocker (known as "Fred" or "Col. Crocker") and grandson of Charles Crocker, who were renowned for their contribution to the first US transcontinental railroad, in the Southern Pacific company and controlling share holder of the Wells Fargo, but C.T. Crocker mainly devoted himself to make oceanic expeditions and to write librettos for opera and other musical events, like "The land of Happiness" and "Fay-Yen-Fah". Also the town Templeton along the Southern Pacific Railroad is named for him.

Who is Cron in Parathalestris croni (Krøyer,1842) - or is it a latinization of Krohn?

Lacking information about Crosby in the bivalve name Yoldia crosbyana Guppy, 1882. Possibly a South African malacologist named J. Crosby may be the honoured person? More likely, however, is the Massachusetts geologist Prof. William Otis Crosby, (14 Jan. - Decatur, Ohio) 1850-1925, who was interested in malacology and likely the father of Irving Ballard Crosby 1891-1959, another Boston geologist.

Dr. Alain Georges Paul Crosnier, (21 Mar.) 1930-, French biologist at the Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., Paris, who has published much on crustaceans [Crosnierita McPherson, 1998, Crosnieriella Jones, 1998, Hadrothoe crosnieri Humes, 1975, Gelastreutes crosnieri A.J. Bruce, 1990, Ophiomisidium crosnieri Guille & Vadon, 1986, Stylodactyloides crosnieri Cléva, 1990, Metula crosnieri Bouchet, 1988, Ophiactis crosnieri Cherbonnier & Guille, 1978, Notostomus crosnieri Macpherson, 1984, Demania crosnieri Serene, 1984, Processa crosnieri Noel, 1985, Metadynomene crosnieri McLay, 1999, Chaetarcturus crosnieri Poore, 1998, Eutrichocheles crosnieri Ngoc-Ho, 1998, Nematopagurus crosnieri McLaughlin, 1998, Alain Manning, 1998 crosnieri Manning, 1998, Haliogeneia crosnieri Lowry & Stoddart, 1998, Calastacus crosnieri Kensley & Chan, 1998, Intesius crosnieri Davie, 1998, Tellina (Oudardia) crosnieri von Cosel, 1995, Enoplometopus crosnieri Chan & Yu, 1998, Chionelasmus crosnieri Buckeridge, 1998, Brachycarpus crosnieri A.J. Bruce, 1998, Shinkaia crosnieri Baba & Williams, 1998, Oreophorus crosnieri Tan & Ng in Richer de Forges, 1996, Leptochela (Leptochela) crosnieri Hayashi in Richer de Forges, 1996, Metacrangon crosnieri Komai, 1997, Buffonellodes crosnieri Gordon & d'Hondt, 1997, Brochiverruca crosnieri Buckeridge, 1997, Gourretia crosnieri Ngoc, 1991, Alainosquilla Moosa, 1991, Eurysquilla crosnieri Moosa, 1991, Icelopagurus crosnieri McLaughlin, 1997, Gonodactylellus crosnieri (Manning, 1968), Caryophyllia (Caryophyllia) crosnieri Cairns & Zibrowius, 1997, Alainopagurus Lemaitre & McLaughlin, 1995 crosnieri Lemaitre & McLaughlin, 1995, Paromola crosnieri Guinot & Richer de Forges, 1995, Dicranodromia crosnieri Guinot, 1995, Politolana crosnieri N.L. Bruce, 1996, Phyllotymolinum crosnieri Tavares, 1993, Neobythites crosnieri Nielsen, 1995, Trischizostoma crosnieri Lowry & Soddart, 1993, Ethusa crosnieri Chen, 1993, Plesionika alaini Burukovski, 1994, Plesionika crosnieri Chan & Yu, 1991, Afropinnotheres crosnieri Manning, 1993, Alainotheres Manning, 1993, Chicoreus (Triplex) crosnieri Houart, 1985, Pycnogonum crosnieri Stock, 1991, Alainius Baba, 1991 crosnieri Baba, 1991, Dipturus crosnieri (Séret, 1989), Raninoides crosnieri Ribes, 1989, Uroptychus crosnieri Baba, 1989, Solen crosnieri von Cosel, 1989, Neoscalpellum crosnieri Ren, 1989, Psopheticus crosnieri Guinot, 1990, Calocarcinus crosnieri Galil & Clark, 1990, Stylodactyloides crosnieri Cleva, 1990, Leucosia crosnieri Chen, 1989, Orstomisis crosnieri Bayer, 1990, Chaceon crosnieri Manning & Holthuis, 1989, Metula crosnieri Bouchet, 1988, Ophiomisidium crosnieri Guille & Vadon, 1986, Pylocheles (Bathycheles) crosnieri Forest, 1987, Holothuria (Platyperona) crosnieri Cherbonnier, 1988, Medorippe crosnieri Chen, 1987, Processa crosnieri Noel, 1985, Trachycarcinus crosnieri Guinot, 1986, Costaria crosnieri Bouchet & Warén, 1985, Asterodiscides crosnieri Rowe, 1985, Chicoreus (Chicoreus) crosnieri Houart, 1985, Cryptopenaeus crosnieri Farfante & Kensley, 1985, Notostomus crosnieri Macpherson, 1984, Thalamita crosnieri Vannini, 1983, Dallithyris crosnieri (Cooper, 1983), Synalpheus crosnieri Banner & Banner, 1983, Callanthias crosnieri Fourmanoir, 1981, Minicopenaeon crosnieri (Bourdon, 1979), Chondrometra crosnieri Marshall & Rowe, 1981, Thyraplax crosnieri (Guinot & Richer de Forges, 1981), Fustiaria (Laevidentalium) crosnieri Nickles, 1979, Parapenaeon crosnieri Bourdon, 1979, Eusirus crosnieri Ledoyer, 1978, Ophiactis crosnieri Cherbonnier & Guille, 1978, Palaemonella crosnieri A.J. Bruce, 1978, Latiromitra crosnieri Bouchet & Kantor, 2000, Cancilla scrobicula crosnieri Cernohorsky, 1970, Dentalium crosnieri Scarabino, 1995, Pagurus alaini Komai, 1998, Leonnates crosnieri Qui & Qian, 2000, Gregorioiscala crosnieri E.F. Garcia, 2004, Charybdis crosnieri Spiridonov & Türkay, 2001, Lumbrineris crosnieri Carrera-Parra, 2006, Acanthosquilla crosnieri Ahyong, 2002, Euclosia crosnieri Galil 2003, Periclimenes crosnieri X. Li & A.J. Bruce, 2006]. (Dr. A.J. Bruce kindly provided the last eponym; the number of marine eponyms - almost 100 - must be a record for a living person).

Ellis Royal Cross, (27 Dec. - Valley Ford, Washington) 1913-2000 (8 May), editor emeritus of the Hawaiian Shells News [Vexillum elliscrossi Rosenberg & Salisbury, 1991, Chicomurex elliscrossi (Fair, 1974), Terebra elliscrossi Bratcher, 1979]. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly provided one of the dates).

Joseph Charles Hippolyte Crosse, (1 Oct.) 1826-1898 (7 Aug.), French malacologist [Cornisepta crossei (Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1896), Cylichna crossei B.D.D., 1886, Sayella crosseana (Dall, 1885), Retusa crossei (Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus, 1882), Favartia crossei Lienard, 1873, Bistolida stolida crossei (Marie, 1869)].

Dr. Cyril Crossland, (Sheffield) 1878-1943 (7 Jan. - Copenhagen), British naturalist, who was an assistent to M'Intosh (q.v.) during 1903-04 [Lineus crosslandi Punnett & Cooper, 1909, Mimosella crosslandi d'Hondt, 1983, Callistochiton crosslandi E. R. Sykes, 1907, Hypomyzostoma crosslandi (Boulenger, 1913), Sebadoris crosslandi (Eliot, 1903), Gymnonereis crosslandi (Monro, 1933), Patinapta crosslandi Heding, Desis crosslandi (Pocock), Paraleucilla crosslandi Row, 1909, Platygyra crosslandi (Matthai,1928)].

Dr. Edwin J. Crossman, (21 Sep. - Niagara Falls, Ontario) 1929-2003 (21 Dec.), worked as ichthyologist at the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, before retirement.

Lacking information about Crotch in the gastropod name Conus crotchii L. A. Reeve, 1849; the entomologist George Robert Crotch, 1842-1874, is too young to be the honoured person.

Crouania J. Agardh, 1842, Ceramium crouanianum J. Agardh and Hildenbrandia crouanii J. Ag. were likely named for one or both of the brothers Pierre Louis Crouan, (27 Apr. - Brest) 1798-1871 (19 Nov.), and Hippolyte Marie Crouan, (22 Nov. - Brest) 1802-1871 (4 June), who i.a. published on algae, almost always together.

Terence Eldon Crowley, (12 July - Otley, Yorkshire) 1915-1999, UK Malacologist.

William John Crozier, (24 May - New York City) 1892-1955 (2 Nov. - Belmont, Massachusetts), Harward zoologist, was honoured in the enteropneust name Glossobalanus crozieri van der Horst, 1924 and in the polyclad name Maritigrella crozieri (Hyman, 1939). Crozier was a student of Jaques Loeb. Crozier and his wife had a a year around position on the Bermuda station during some years from 1915 on.

The cowry name Cypraeovula cruickshanki (R. N. Kilburn, 1972) is honouring Ray Cruickshank, 19??-, (of Gordon's Bay).

Lacking information about Crutchfield in the ciliate name Circolagenophrys crutchfieldi (Clamp, 1993). Is is not named for the US malacologist Auralie Crutchfield, 1938-, but for the botanist Philip J. Crutchfield, around 1929-2009 (28 July, at age 80), of Fayetteville, N.C.

Ms. Antonia Cruz Rodrigues, (12 Apr.) 1948-1996 (28 Aug.), Spanish plankton researcher [Foersteria antoniae Gili, Bouillon, Psagès, Palanques, Puig & Heussner, 1998].

Lacking information about Cryos in the sponge name Coelosphaera (Histodermion) cryosi (Boury-Esnault & al., 1994) and in the tardigrade name Agauides cryosi Bartsch, 1988.

Lacking information about Cuaton in the gastropod name Cypraea boivini cuatoni S. Kosuge, 1983.

Lucien Claude Cuénot, (21 Oct. - Paris) 1866-1951 (7 Jan. - Nancy), French well-known Mendelistic zoologist, working in Nancy [Iphitime cuenoti Fauvel, 1913, Cryptochilidium cuenoti (Florentin, 1898), Pentagonaster cuenoti Koehler, 1909].

Abbé Cullieret, 18??-90? (nécrologie arriving in 1892), French malacologist active in Africa and New Zealand, "aumònier du croiseur Dubourdieu, qui effectua, en 1890, des récoltes malacologiques aux Canaries et au Sénegal", is honoured in the decapod name Parabetaeus culliereti Coutière, 1897 and the polyplacophoran name Lepidozona culliereti De Rochebrune, 1889.

Raymond F. Cumberland, 1917-1984, UK Malacologist.

Hugh Cuming, (14 Feb. - West Alvington, Devon) 1791-1865 (10 Aug.), British Malacologist, who initially made a small fortune as an illiterate sailmaker in Valparaiso, Chile, but gave up his profession in 1826, built a yacht named "Discoverer" and started collecting expeditions to Pacific islands (like Otaheite = Tahiti) and coast-lines. In 1831 he returned to England, where his vast shell collections became famous among naturalists. Several British and continental naturalists helped in describing the taxa he had collected. (However, Cuming had problems with his French connections, Deshayes (q.v.) being one of few exceptions, so Austrians and Germans like Rüppell (q.v.) and Louis Pfeiffer (q.v.) more often worked on his material than Frenchmen. Between 1835-40 he again visited warmer islands (the Philippines) collecting still more natural objects. In 1846 he was hit by a stroke, survived, but had problems with his health for the rest of his life. However, he enlarged his collection by exchange, buying and sponsoring expeditions, as a rule getting specimens in return later. In 1866 his left shell collection (83,000 specimens) was purchased by the British Museum for £6000. As a boy he lived not far from Kingsbridge, where Montagu (q.v.) had settled late in life and Cuming met the old naturalist and was inspired to be a conchologlist [Ibla cumingi Darwin, 1851, Metula cumingi A. Adams, 1853, Chiton cumingii Frembly, 1827, Paraspidosiphon cumingii (Baird, 1868), Naquetia cumingii (Adams 1853), Echininus cumingii (Philippi, 1846), Epitonium cumingii (Carpenter, 1856), Enaeta cumingii (Broderip, 1832), Tomlinula cumingii (A. Adams, 1854), Tellina cumingii Hanley, 1844, Cumingia Sowerby, 1833, Solecurtus cumingianus Dunker, 1861, Polinices cumingianus Récluz, 1844, Chicoreus cumingii A. Adams in H. & A. Adams, 1853, Typhis cumingii W. J. Broderip, 1833, Conus cumingii L. A. Reeve, 1848, Cribrarula cumingii (Sowerby, 1832), Thyasira cumingii Fischer, 1861, Musculus cumingiana L. A. Reeve, 1857, Neoferdina cumingi (Gray), Balanophyllia cumingii Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848, Truncatoflabellum cumingii (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848), Magadina cumingi (Davidson, 1887), Visayaseguenzia cumingi  Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006]. {Picture (young) Picture (old) / courtesy of R. Giannuzzi-Savelli}. (G. Poppe kindly provided the last eponym).

Chiton cunninghami Reeve was named for Allan Cunningham, (13 July - Wimbledon, England) 1791-1839 (27 June - Sydney), explorer and botanist, who was sent to New South Wales by Joseph Banks to collect plants. Joined John Oxley's expedition to the Lachlan and Macquarie rivers in 1817 and was botanist on the "Mermaid" 1817-20. He also made inland explorations of New South Wales.

Dr. Joseph Thomas Cunningham, 1859-1935 (5 June), naturalist at the Plymouth Laboratory and before that for some time working in Edinburgh and Oxford, partly together with M'Intosh in St. Andrews, but left Plymouth in 1897 to work for Cornwall County Council and still later he became a lecturer in the University of London [Eudendrium cunninghami Kirkpatrick, 1910]. Obituary: Bidder, G.P. 1935. Joseph Thomas Cunningham (1859-1935). Journal du Conseil International pour l' Exploration de la Mer 10:245-248.

Miss Margaret Suzanne Cunningham, 1900-??, amateur conchologist at Guyamas, Sonora [Trialatella cunninghamae Berry, 1963, Dermomurex cunninghamae Berry, 1953, Drillia cunninghamae McLean & Poorman, 1971].

Dr. Clifford Cunningham, 19??-, hydroid researcher at Duke Univ.

The British demonstrator in zoology Dr. William Alfred Cunnington, 1877-1958, who travelled in Africa (studying anthropology), is possibly the person honoured in the caridean name Caridella cunningtoni Calman, 1906.

Dr. Easter Ellen Cupp, (30 Mar. - Neola, Iowa) 1904-1999 (27 Aug. - San Diego), was the first women in the USA to receive a doctorate in oceanography (in 1934 from Scripps). She is probably best known for her book Marine Plankton Diatoms of the West Coast of North America.

Dr. Lourdes J. Cruz, (19 May) 1942-, Philippine researcher. She has mainly studied the venom of fish-hunting Conus snails.

Lacking information about Curnow in the bivalve name Pitar (Pitarina) curnowae Lamprell & Healy, 1997.

Norman Paul Curran, (30 May - Waltham, Mass.) 1916-1979, who together with Gale Sphon (q.v.) collected the type of the gastropod Crassispira (Monilispira) currani McLean & Poorman, 1971 in Mexico, was an US Naval aviator and amateur conchologist.

Prof. Bart J. Currie, 19??-, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Australia, is honoured in the Chirodropid name Chiropsella bart Gershwin & Alderslade, 2006.

Dr. Joseph Augustine Cushman, (31 Jan. - Bridgewater, Mass.) 1881-1949 (16 Apr.), U.S. palaentologist and geologist, PhD at Harvard in 1909, director of Boston Natural History Museum between 1913-23 and director of Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research in Sharon, Massachusetts in 1923, a building he built beside his own house. He became a widower with three infant kids in 1912, but remarried during the next year. His interests were many; was often found gardening and had a coop with chickens for eggs for the family and frog ponds in his garden and knew all about the local flora. M. Ruth Todd , (22 Oct. - Seattle) 1913-1984 (19 Aug. - Martha's Vineyard, Mass.), became his assistant in 1940 [Carpenteria toddae McCulloch, 1977, Lamarckina toddae Hofker, 1978, Trochamminopsis toddae Bronniman & Zaninetti, 1984]. He was the most well-known foraminiferologist of his time and most of his family helped him in different ways in his research. After he had died from stomach cancer, his collections (and his collaborator Todd) went to the Smithsonian. There she continued to work long after her formal retirement in 1967 (and later on - almost until she died - in a private laboratory room in her home) [ Synasterope cushmani Kornicker, 1974, Uvigerina cushmani Todd, 1948, Cushmanella Palmer & Bermúdez, 1936, Cushmanulla Saidova, 1975, Cushmanina Wynn Jones, 1984].

Donald Ward Cutler, 1890-1940 or 1941?, British? biologist and phycologist. The genus Cutleria Greville, 1830, is not named for him, but for the British algologist Miss Catherine Cutler, 1784-1866, likely the same Miss Cutler as Landsborough (q.v.) in his "Popular History of British Zoophytes ..." is referring to as Miss Cutler, of Budleigh Salterton, Devon, who evidently was a friend of Mrs Gulson (q.v.) of the Exmouth area.

Prof. Dr. Edward Bayler Cutler, (28 May - Plymouth, Michigan) 1935-2006 (2 Sep. - by prostatic cancer), U.S. sipunculologist, achieved his PhD in 1967 at the University of Rhode Island. He started his career writing some papers about Pogonophora (taking part in an Indian Ocean expedition with R/V Anton Bruun) and then being attracted to Sipuncula, after retirement becoming Prof. emeritus of biology at Utica College of Syracuse University and Museum Associate, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, having problems with his eyes and finally being completely blind, but being able to continue thanks to help from family and friends [Nephasoma cutleri (Murina, 1975)]. He has published several sipunculan papers together with Norma J. Cutler, 19??-, his first wife, before Anne.

Lacking information about Miss Cutler, "a lady of scientific taste and acquirements", in the gastropod name Dikoleps cutleriana (W. Clark, 1848).

Prof. Charles E. Cutress Jr., (8 Mar. - Calgary, Canada) 1921-1992 (17 Jan. - Mayaguez, Puerto Rico), U.S. Coelenterate researcher [Epizoanthus cutressi D.A. West, 1979], His wife Bertha Mae Cutress (neé Dana), (28 Dec.) 1920-1999 (7 Mar.), worked on echinoderms. They worked in Hawaii, Washington D.C. and Puerto Rico.

Baron Georges Léopold C(h)rétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier, (23 Aug. - Montbéliard) 1769-1832 (13 May), born in a French Huguenot family in a small town close to Basel, at that time belonging to the duchy Würtemburg. (He was baptized to Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, got the name Dagobert by courtesy a bit later, but was called Georges by his parents (because an older brother by that name died at age 4 at the time when the younger sibling was born) - a name he kept as the one to use). After finishing the school in Stuttgart, when beeing 18 years old, he moved to Normandy, where he was employed as a private tutor and interested himself in the inhabitants of the sea, which he skilfully depicted and studied helped by the key literature of that time - the works of Aristoteles. After a few years, rumours about his activity had reached Paris, where he was summoned, and soon - in the spirit of the revolution - he was appointed professor of comparative anatomy, albeit recommended by one of the professors of zoology (the other one was Lamarck, who seconded this recommendation), who both had been appointed the year before (in 1793), Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, (15 Apr. - Etampes) 1772-1844 (19 June), who for a long time was a friend of Cuvier. Because of fundamental differences in temper and conviction, however, eventually a long embittered polemic between them took place. Cuvier, despite his "oversized ego", was calm and thoughtful and did never directly address a contribution to the debate, while Geoffroy in much was the opposite. During the revolution in 1892, Geoffroy - risking his own life - had succeded to rescue several clergyman colleagues - he, himself had a priest education - from the "September homocides". Later he followed Napoleon to Egypt and succeded to save vast collections from being taken by Englishmen and still later he was sent by Napoleon on a less honourable trip to "collect" from Portugese museums for the account of the French state, bringing back several natural history objects, which he had not seen before, e.g. remains of the Amazon River Dolphin, which de Blainville in 1817 named Delphinus geoffrensis after its liberator from the Portuguese museums, later transferred to the genus Inia by Gervais, after the Guayaro Indian name for the dolphin., which d'Orbigny had created, using the name Inia boloviensis for a subspecies. During his last years Geoffroy became blind, just as his colleague Lamarck did [Lucernaria sainthilarei (Radicorzew, 1???), Trachyphyllia geoffroyi (Audouin, 1826), Bornia geoffroyi Payraudeau, 1826]. His only son Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, (16 Dec.) 1805-1861 (10 Nov.), also became a zoologist pioneering the scientific study of monsters (teratology) and also coined the word ethology. (These persons should not be confused with the French entomologist Ètienne Louis Geoffroy, 1725-1810). Cuvier married Anne-Marie Duvaucel during the 1890s and became stepfather of her son Alfred (q.v.). Together with some cooperators, Cuvier wrote the unfinished 5 volume work "Leçons d'anatomie comparée" in 1800-05, which in 1835-45 arrived in a 2:nd edition in 9 volumes, then published by A.C. Duméril (q.v.), - one of the original three authors. Being in Napoleon's good graces, Cuvier succesively became more and more influential, both socially and as a biologist (secretary of the academy of science in 1803, minister and university chancellor in 1814, peer of France in 1931) also after the fall of the despot, until he - the founder of modern comparative anatomy (although owing much from Buffon (q.v.) and his assistant Daubenton and also having a forerunner in the German anatomist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, (11 May - Gotha) 1752-1840 (22 Jan. - Göttingen) - he who coined the words caucasian and mongolian for two human "races") and palaentology - suddenly died in the first large cholera epidemic in Europe, leaving just his widow - their children all (except his step daughter Sophie) died young (see e.g. his step-son Duvaucel). Because of Cuvier's growing conviction of species constancy, he never co-published anything with his senior colleague, professor Lamarck (q.v.), who - after Geoffroy had chosen the vertebrates as his field of activity - had been left with animals without backbones. However, in the production of Cuvier and Lamarck, reciprocal influence is easily traceable, Cuvier being the one, who "sitting at Lamarck's table, strolling in and out of his office, borrowing his authority and his pencils" took most advantage, perhaps leaving a trifle now and then for the humble, somewhat eccentric, unselfish and harmless old Lamarck. In the eyes of Cuvier, Lamarck's evolution hypothesis must have been a bit more respectable - although wrong from his point of view - than the very speculative evolution improvisations by his former friend Geoffroy, although Cuvier's eulogy at Lamarck's funeral was not at all flattering to the old dead man, compared to the kind words spoken by Geoffroy and Latreille. The authors of Aricia cuvieri Audouin & H. Milne-Edwards (a synonym of Orbinia sertulata de Savigny) were disciples of Cuvier and published together with other "disciples" (Deshayes (q.v.), D'Orbigny (q.v.), Dugès (q.v.), Georges Louise Duvernoy, (6 Aug. - Montbéliard) 1777-1855, (1 Mar. - Paris) (Reptiles), Charles Léopold Laurillard, (21 Jan. - Montbéliard) 1783-1853 (Paris), (Mammifères (part)), Francois Désiré Roulin, 1797-1874 (5 June), (Mammifères (part)), Valenciennes (q.v.), Louis Michel François Doyère, (28 Jan. - Saint-Michel-des-Essartiers, Calvados) 1811-63 (Corsica), (Insectes), Blanchard (q.v.) & de Quatrefages (q.v.)) a 3:rd edition of "Règne Animal" in 22 volumes in 1836-49, which first was published in Nov. 1816 in 4 volumes by Cuvier, with a 2:nd edition by Cuvier and Latreille (q.v.) in 5 volumes in 1829 [Paromola cuvieri (Risso, 1816), Cuvieria Péron, 1807, Cuvierina Boas, 1886, Galeocerdo cuvier (Peron & Lesueur, 1822) (tiger shark), Nassarius cuvierii Payraudeau, 1826, Conus cuvieri H. Crosse, 1858]. Cuvier's younger brother Frédéric Cuvier, (28 June) 1773-1838 (24 July), was a zoologist as well.

Prof. Jean Cuvillier, 1899-1969, published on Egyptian Nummulites in 1933 and on foraminiferans (in French) during the time after WWII [Elphidium cuvilieri Levy, 1966].

Eralyn Cuyos, 19??-, the Philippines. Collection manager in Conchology, Inc.  [Mitra cuyosae Poppe, 2008]. (G. Poppe kindly provided this information).

The Caribbean gastropod name Turbonilla cynthiae de Jong & Coomans, 1988 is in honour of Cynthia Vrijsen-Coomans, 19??-, daughter of the second author.

Who is Cynthia in the name of the parasitic copepod Lichomolgidium cynthiae (Brian, 1924) from the sea squirts Styela clava & Pyura microcosmus?

Cynthia in Trachythyone cynthiae : (see Ahearn)

Cynthia in Melongena cynthiae : (see Mischler).

Cyril : (see Dolin).

Lacking data about Voldemar(o) (or W.) Czerniavsky (now often transcribed Chernyavskii or Chernyavsky or Cherniavsky) 184?-1??? (died likely during the late 1880s because of weak health (possibly tbc?) - see below), zoologist working on crustaceans (mainly mysidacea, but also several other groups) and annelids during 2 decades (at least until 1887) from the mid 1860s, especially in the Black Sea. Some of his writings were published in Moscow, others in Kharkov and still others in international journals like the "Zool. Anz.". He was a disciple of Prof A.V. Chernaj. Dr. Andrei Yu. Utevsky at the Univ. of Kharkov kindly informed that Czerniavsky also seem to have been a pioneer in the study of sponges and nemerteans in the Black Sea [Eurydice czerniavsky Bacescu, 1948, Macropodia czernjawskii (Brandt, 1880)]. (Prof. Albina Gaevskaya, Sevastopol, kindly tried to find out more about Chernyavsky and what she found, helped by Kharkov library colleagues was the following:) V.I. Chernyavsky was a nobleman. In 1864-1865 he had been a leaver of 3rd Kharkov's gymnasium (grammar-school). In 1865-1869 he was a student of a section (department) of natural sciences of physic-mathematic faculty of Imperial Kharkov University. 12 September 1869 the student V. I. Chernyavsky was admitted to the Society of Testers of Nature at the Imperial Kharkov University (on proposal of A. V. Chernaj, A. F. Maslovsky and P. T. Stepanov). From 1870 he lived in Sukhumi (Sukhumi-Kale, - under such name this city was named in the Report of Society Activity, 1870). (Sukumi by the Black Sea coast is the capital city of Abkhaziya). The choice of this city as inhabitation was likely conditioned by state of his health, because he wrote in one of his book published in St.-Peterburg that he was forced to leave Peterburg and returned to changeless inhabitation in Sukhumi. V. I. Chernyavsky was the famous regional investigator of Abkhaziya. Besides his papers on the Black Sea invertebrates he had published the papers on the disease of grapes (wine), the saline springs of some regions of Abkhaziya, life of plantae in Sukhumi region etc. Some data about Chernyavsky are in "Bibliotheca zoologica Rossica. Literatur uber die Thierwelt Gesammtrussland biz zum jahre 1885 incl. Bd. II / Von Friedrich Theodor Koppen." Publ. in 1907 in St.-Peterburg. - 366 s. ( S. 24, 25, 26, 29, 365).

Last modified: . Hans.G.Hansson@tmbl.gu.se